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A round up of the top countryside, conservation, wildlife and forestry stories as chosen by the CJS Team.


RSPB Scotland calls for immediate halt to mountain hare culls on back of shocking new report

Government agency statement on status of protected species and habitats shows alarming decline in species’ population

New data published by the EU revealing the condition of Scottish protected species and habitats has revealed the country’s mountain hare populations have experienced a major decline.

As a result the status of the mountain hare has been downgraded to unfavourable, meaning that special conservation action needs to be undertaken to arrest further declines and aid their recovery.

The main cause of this reclassification has been identified as hunting and game management. Lesser pressures include the impacts of agriculture and habitat loss.

The Article 17 Report requires the Scottish Government to give information on the status of European protected habitats and species. Scottish Natural Heritage, the government’s own natural heritage advisors, have taken the action on the back of new evidence revealing catastrophic mountain hare declines particularly in areas managed for intensive driven grouse shooting activity.

RSPB Scotland have lobbied for many years to improve the protection for mountain hares in Scotland - calling for a moratorium in 2015 on the unregulated culling. Since then shocking new evidence has shown the species – a true emblem of Scotland’s wild places – has declined by over 90% in some sites managed for driven grouse shooting in spite of claims from the shooting industry that numbers remain healthy.

Duncan Orr-Ewing, Head of Species and Land Management at RSPB Scotland, said: “We have been extremely concerned about the state of our mountain hare populations for many years.”


New barnacle goose scheme opens in the Hebrides – Scottish Natural Heritage

Barnacle Geese (SNH - Lorne Gill)Applications are now open for a new £60,000 barnacle goose management scheme in North Uist, Coll and Tiree, Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH) announced today (26 August).

Barnacle Geese (SNH - Lorne Gill)

The scheme will compensate farmers who allow Greenland barnacle geese to graze undisturbed in protected areas of the islands, so they will cause less damage elsewhere.

Scotland hosts around 60% of the world’s population of Greenland barnacle geese. These internationally important birds are a conservation success story, with increased numbers across the country over the last 20 years. However, this impacts crofters and farmers, as high numbers of geese feed on productive agricultural land and cause significant damage in some areas.

In the late 1990s, the barnacle goose population totalled 3000 on the islands of North Uist, Coll and Tiree. This has now increased to more than 10,000 – with 6,000 geese on North Uist, and 4,700 on Coll and Tiree.

Johanne Ferguson, SNH’s Outer Hebrides Operations Manager, said: “Wild geese are an important part of Scotland’s nature, but their increased numbers have been challenging for farmers and crofters. It’s still a significant  issue in some areas, with a difficult balance to make between conservation and farming. I’d encourage crofters and farmers to see if they’re eligible for this new scheme, which will both reduce goose damage to crops elsewhere and help conserve geese. We’re happy to answer any questions and help with applications at our local offices in Uist and Lochgilphead.”

The scheme covers approximately 400 hectares on North Uist and 250 hectares on Coll and Tiree, and will run from October 2019 to May 2021.

To be eligible, agricultural land must lie within an area of high barnacle goose use, be permanent or rotational grassland and in a suitable condition to attract barnacle geese. On Uist, eligible land must be outside mainland areas of North Uist, as agreed with the Uist goose group.


Hundreds of trees planted in a pilot to help reduce flood risk – Environment Agency

Launch of a natural flood management pilot project to help reduce the risk of flooding from the River Aire

Hundreds of trees have been planted as part of the first project to trial natural flood management techniques to help improve protection for the people of Leeds and living near the River Aire.

The pilot site on a working farm at Eshton Beck, Gargrave now has 650 new trees planted by staff and trainees from Yorkshire Wildlife Trust and volunteers.

Yorkshire Wildlife Trust has also worked on three further pilots on the same site, with a whole host of volunteers from the Environment Agency, Leeds City Council, Yorkshire Water, The Conservation Volunteers, Craven Conservation Group and SCAPA, a firm based in Gargrave. They were also helped by students and staff from Leeds University and NVQ trainees from Craven College. The flood alleviation work involved building 66 log and brash leaky dams, planting a further 850 trees, undertaking 0.5ha of woodland management, building a 20m-long log revetment – using timber to prevent bank erosion and installing 200m of fenceline and a water gate to protect the new trees from nearby grazing stock.

The aim is to see how natural techniques can slow the flow of water and reduce the risk of flooding downstream. The trees include dogwood, guelder rose, downy birch, alder, and willow which will be planted along with hedgerows of hawthorn, blackthorn and hazel. Other measures carried out at part of the project include fencing works, creating leaky barriers and woody dams and stabilising river banks. The natural flood management pilot forms part of the Leeds Flood Alleviation Scheme, led by Leeds City Council in partnership with the Environment Agency, which has a catchment wide approach to flood risk as it enters its second stage.


Beaver reintroduction key to solving freshwater biodiversity crisis – University of Stirling

Reintroducing beavers to their native habitat is an important step towards solving the freshwater biodiversity crisis, according to experts at the University of Stirling.

New research from the Faculty of Natural Sciences has provided further support to previous work that has shown beavers have an important impact on the variety of plant and animal life.

The latest study, led by Dr Alan Law and Professor Nigel Willby, found that the number of species only found in beaver-built ponds was 50 percent higher than other wetlands in the same region.

Dr Law, Lecturer in Biological and Environmental Sciences, said: “Beavers make ponds that, at first glance, are not much different from any other pond. However, we found that the biodiversity – predominantly water plants and beetles – in beaver ponds was greater than and surprisingly different from that found in other wetlands in the same region. Our results also emphasise the importance of natural disturbance by big herbivores – in this case, tree felling, grazing and digging of canals by beavers – in creating habitat for species which otherwise tend to be lost. Reintroducing beavers where they were once native should benefit wider biodiversity and should be seen as an important and bold step towards solving the freshwater biodiversity crisis.”

Beavers are one of the only animals that can profoundly engineer the environment that they live in – using sticks to build dams across small rivers, behind which ponds form. Beavers do this to raise water levels to avoid predators, such as wolves and bears: however, numerous other plants and animals also benefit from their work.


Welsh dragons receive National Lottery funding lifeline – Amphibian & Reptile Conservation Trust

The National Lottery Heritage Fund has awarded over £428,000 to Amphibian and Reptile Conservation (ARC) to help Wales’ most threatened amphibians and reptiles.

Amphibians and reptiles are vital components of our ecosystems, but are suffering from lack of good habitat, landscape fragmentation and public misunderstanding.

With help from National Lottery Players, ARC and its partners will work with hundreds of volunteers and citizen scientists to conserve habitats, build a vital record of populations and find out what needs to be done to secure the future of these species.

Across the world, 40% of all amphibians are under threat of extinction and the figure for reptiles may be even higher. Wales’ species need our help too. The new Connecting the Dragons project will operate across southern Wales, focusing on the five species known to be most under threat there – the sand lizard, adder, grass snake, great crested newt and common toad.

There is no doubt that they are at risk. Loss of habitats such as heathlands and ponds, increasing pressures from development and fragmentation, and public misunderstanding of these important species (including in the case of snakes persecution) have all played their part.


Generous grant will support curlew conservation in Sutherland - RSPB

RSPB Scotland is delighted to have received support from FCC Communities Foundation Ltd. for habitat restoration work at their Forsinard Flows Nature Reserve. FCC Communities Foundation Ltd. is a not-for-profit business that awards grants for community projects through the Scottish Landfill Communities Fund.

The reserve is located in Sutherland, nestled amongst the rugged peatlands, sheltered straths and mountains of the Flow Country, the largest blanket bog in Europe. It supports a wide array of wildlife - including dunlin, greenshank and hen harrier - and one area of the reserve, Forsinain Farm, provides a mosaic of grasslands and wetlands that is home to breeding curlew, one of Scotland’s most threatened birds. When properly maintained, wetlands like this are the preferred habitat for breeding curlew.

The curlew is the largest European wading bird and it is instantly recognisable with its long, downcurved bill, mottled brown colouring, long legs and distinctive ‘cour-lee’ call. The UK’s breeding population of Curlew is of international importance, being estimated to represent more than 30 per cent of the west European population. There have been worrying declines in the breeding population throughout the UK and across the globe, due to changes in land use and practices that drain or dry out their preferred wetland habitats.

Thanks to the generous contribution of £34,196.13 from FCC Communities Foundation Ltd., RSPB Scotland has now started work to restore wetland habitat at the farm for the benefit of curlew and other conservation priority wildlife. The funds will also allow the team to introduce new visitor infrastructure, which will provide unprecedented viewing opportunities of the farm’s wetland biodiversity.


New population of critically endangered mussels discovered - Scottish Natural Heritage

 A new population of globally endangered freshwater pearl mussels has been discovered in a Scottish river, giving fresh hope to scientists working to conserve the rare mollusc.

Freshwater Pearl Mussels ©Sue Scott SNHThe successfully-breeding population was found in one of the tributaries of the River Spey in an area of native woodland by a graduate on the Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH) placement scheme.

Freshwater Pearl Mussels ©Sue Scott SNH

Kieran Leigh-Moy has been working on a project to understand why the declining populations of freshwater pearl mussels in the river were not breeding and locate sites where they could be reintroduced to help their recovery.

While developing a method for identifying the most suitable locations, he came across a previously unknown population which, significantly, contained juveniles.

Freshwater pearl mussels can live up to 280 years old, but the species is critically endangered as a large proportion of the populations across Europe have not been successfully breeding for several decades.

Kieran said: “I’d already identified this river as potentially having good quality habitat, so was visiting the site to conduct more in-depth surveys to see if it would be a suitable site for a reintroduction, but was stunned to find juvenile freshwater pearl mussels already there. It’s really rare to find a new population of these mussels, and especially one that is breeding successfully, so it was a really exciting moment. What’s particularly significant is that the juvenile mussels found were many miles away from the nearest known breeding population and that’s good news because it could help to prevent further range contraction of the species.”

It is hoped the approach developed by Kieran can be used to help prioritise conservation efforts and find good habitat for freshwater pearl mussels at other locations as well as mitigate the shrinking range of the species in the river.


South Wales’ ‘lost peatlands’ given new lease of life - The National Lottery Heritage Fund

Funding will help restore over 540 hectares of neglected landscape and habitat, once known as the Alps of Glamorgan.

Flourishing heathland. Credit: NPTCThe Lost Peatlands of South Wales project is aiming to restore a historic peatland landscape and to help people enjoy their local outdoor space.

The project has been awarded £260,000 by The National Lottery to develop its plans further. It can then apply for a larger grant of over £1.8million once its plans are fully developed.

Flourishing heathland. Credit: NPTC

This grant is the first major award given in The National Lottery Heritage Fund’s new focus areas of Neath Port Talbot and Rhondda Cynon Taf, which have been identified as the two areas in Wales that could benefit most from National Lottery investment in their heritage.

A changed landscape

Once referred to as the Alps of Glamorgan, the uplands area between Neath Port Talbot and Rhondda Cynon Taf in the South Wales valleys was at one time boggy peatland. But due to the extensive commercial forestry planting of conifer trees since the 1950s, the area’s landscape now looks very different.

This change has affected not only the look of the valleys, but other important natural elements such as the ability of rare wildlife to thrive there, as well as increased risk of fires and floods.

The use of land for forestry has also meant large areas are difficult to access for recreational use, meaning that local people don’t see the benefit of this extensive green space.


1000 National Park Rangers to increase diversity in the countryside, welcomed by original campaigners - Campaign for National Parks

The charity for National Parks has today welcomed a proposal to increase the number of National Park rangers fourfold. The idea was announced by Julian Glover on today’s Today Programme on BBC Radio 4. Mr Glover is leading a review of England’s National Parks and Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty, which was commissioned by the former Environment Secretary, Michael Gove, and which is due to be published this autumn. 

According to the proposals, the 1000 rangers would be administered by a new National Ranger Service. The details are still emerging, but a core function of the rangers would be to go out and inspire minority or marginalised communities to use the National Parks, to welcome visitors and tell them about the local landscape, wildlife and history.  

Campaign for National Parks, the charity which was first established in 1936 to lead the fight to establish the National Parks, has welcomed the proposals. It has campaigned for measures to improve access to the Parks and led the Mosaic Project for ten years, which successfully introduced communities to the National Parks in England and Wales.

Corinne Pluchino, Chief Executive of Campaign for National Parks said: “We stand at an incredibly important point in history for the National Parks. The National Parks have achieved a great deal since they were first established seventy years ago, but it’s a matter of urgency that we revitalise their vision and ambitions.

“The challenges of climate change, the collapse of wildlife and a lack of diversity in the visitors enjoying the Parks means we need a re-think at a national level. It’s fantastic to see new ideas that could capture the imagination and drive forward diverse, thriving landscapes with visitors from all sorts of backgrounds. In our submission to the review we specifically cited the importance of National Park rangers in reaching out to underrepresented communities so we are delighted to see the Glover review take this on board.”

Campaign for National Parks has been leading calls for changes in the National Parks including a new way of going about nature conservation, increasing protection for their unique landscapes, and improving sustainable access into the Parks so every part of society can enjoy them.

“The forebears of Campaign for National Parks knew how important it was for the nation that these special places were protected. That places such as the Lake District, Dartmoor and the Peak District could provide beauty, clean air and tranquillity to everyone, and not just the select few. We welcome the review’s early analysis and hope the final report will be bold and ambitious” continued Corinne.


Birdcrime report demands grouse moor review in England - RSPB

  • The RSPB’s Birdcrime 2018 report reveals bird of prey persecution is still rife.
  • There were 87 confirmed incidents of illegal activity, but only one conviction.
  • The RSPB awaits the outcome of the independent grouse moor review in Scotland, looking at how grouse moors can be managed sustainably and within the law, and seek a similar review for England.

Birds of prey continue to be illegally shot, trapped and poisoned, particularly on land managed for driven grouse shooting according to the RSPB’s annual report of illegal bird persecution.

Birdcrime 2018 – the only report summarising offences against birds of prey in the UK – reveals 87 confirmed incidents of bird of prey persecution in 2018. Victims included 31 buzzards, 27 red kites and 6 peregrines. Hen harriers, red kites, peregrines and owls were also illegally killed. Intelligence, and scientific data from satellite tagging raptors, suggests many more birds will have been killed and not found, and that these figures only offer a glimpse into a far larger problem.

Sixty-seven (77%) of these incidents took place in England, with 12 in Scotland, five in Wales, three in Northern Ireland. Despite this, only one incident, from a 2017 investigation resulted in a conviction during the year.

The report also identifies illegal persecution blackspots in the Peak District, North Yorkshire and southern Scotland. Incidents were predominantly recorded in these upland areas where the land is managed for driven grouse shooting. All birds of prey are legally protected under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981. Yet in areas these laws are being widely ignored. On some grouse moors, birds of prey and other protected species are routinely and illegally trapped, shot and poisoned. Intelligence, scientific studies and monitoring of satellite-tagged birds, continues to indicate a strong association between raptor persecution and grouse moor management. 


BASC response to latest RSPB Birdcrime report

Following publication of the RSPB’s 2018 Birdcrime report, BASC has reiterated its condemnation of wildlife crime and emphasised the importance of partnership working.  

Grouse moors respond to RSPB birdcrime report - Moorland Association

The Moorland Association, which represents grouse moor owners and managers in England, said today that grouse moors are a proven friend of the environment and not an enemy.

Following the publication of the 2018 Birdcrime Report by RSPB, Amanda Anderson, director of the Moorland Association, said: ” One incident of wildlife crime anywhere is too many, but RSPB’s Birdcrime report has morphed into a blunt and unfounded attack on all grouse moor management with few supporting facts. RSPB’s view that it is ‘criminal, unsustainable and environmentally damaging’ is not shared by government and other agencies.


Mediterranean Blue Butterfly Invades Britain - Butterfly Conservation

Climate change is causing a striking butterfly from southern Europe to appear in record-breaking numbers across the south of England, wildlife charity Butterfly Conservation can reveal.

Long-tailed Blue (male) - Steve MaskellLong-tailed Blue (male) - Steve Maskell

More than 50 Long-tailed Blue butterflies and hundreds of the butterfly’s eggs have been discovered over the last few weeks, which could result in the largest ever emergence of the butterfly in UK history.

Experts believe rising temperatures are behind the influx, with sightings of the butterfly coming in from Cornwall right across to Kent, as far north as Suffolk and even into Surrey – where the Long-tailed Blue hasn’t been seen since 1990.

Typically, only a handful of these exotic migrants from the Mediterranean reach the UK each summer, but this is the third time in six years that the butterfly has arrived in vastly increased numbers and 2019 looks set to surpass the previous peaks witnessed in 2013 and 2015.

Butterfly Conservation volunteer and Long-tailed Blue expert, Neil Hulme, said: “These butterflies have crossed the Channel and are laying eggs in gardens, allotments and anywhere you can find Broad-leaved Everlasting-pea and similar plants, which the caterpillar likes to feed on. We’ve never recorded this many migrant adults before – it’s completely unprecedented. In only a few days, I’ve found more than 100 eggs in Sussex alone and the butterfly has been seen in Cornwall, Somerset, Devon, Dorset, Hampshire, Kent and Suffolk. We’ve even had a sighting in Glamorgan in South Wales. What’s really exciting is that the Long-tailed Blue has gone further inland than it did in 2013 and 2015, with at least three confirmed sightings in Surrey, where the butterfly hasn’t been seen for 30 years. The adults will keep laying eggs and in September and October we’ll see the first British-born offspring emerging. I strongly believe this will take the total number seen this year to well over a hundred, breaking all previous records for this butterfly in the UK.”

The Long-tailed Blue has previously been considered a very rare visitor to the UK, despite being abundant across southern Europe, Africa, Asia and Australia.


First flamingo chick in 4 years hatches - Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust

A long-awaited Chilean flamingo egg has successfully hatched at WWT Washington Wetland Centre – the first chick to arrive in over four years!

For 30 long days, staff and volunteers at WWT Washington have waited on tenterhooks to find out if the first flamingo egg, laid on Wednesday 31 July, would produce a healthy chick.

Well, early on Tuesday 27 August, staff were delighted to hear a ‘croaking’ from within the egg – the very first bonding ritual young flamingos have with their parents – and a signal it was thriving, healthy and almost ready to hatch!

The ‘croaking’ egg was returned to its parents on the nest and within seconds the adults were back tending to the egg and bonding with their soon-to-hatch chick, or ‘flamingling’ as the team at WWT Washington refer to them as.

Then, this morning (29 August 2019) staff were incredibly excited to spot a freshly hatched youngster taking shelter under the protective wing of its parent.

Senior keeper Rhys Mckie said, “To have the first egg in over 4 years hatch successfully is very exciting and it’s great to see the adults doing their job as parents perfectly. It’s also been really promising to have many of our 6-year-old hand-reared flamingos interested in the process; curiously investigating the nests and inspecting the eggs. Some even had a go at incubating the eggs and, although they may not be their own, it’s really encouraging behaviour to see!


Help clean up the countryside with CPRE’s Green Clean - CPRE - the Countryside Charity

The countryside charity is urging everyone to get involved with its nationwide Green Clean litter picks 

This September, CPRE is mobilising almost 20 local CPRE groups, in partnership with other local community groups and passionate volunteers, to clean up local green spaces and countryside as part of its nationwide Green Clean. Evidence from the Green Clean will be used to highlight the urgent need for a deposit return system that includes drinks cans, plastic and glass bottles, cartons and pouches of all sizes. 

Running for one month, and with events taking place from Somerset to Northumberland , the countryside charity wants as many people as possible to get involved in their local Green Clean events and help improve their local environment. 

Last year, litter pickers collected hundreds of bags of litter and over 11,000 drinks bottles and cans, of all shapes, sizes and materials. This not only helped to transform local green spaces across the country, but also demonstrated that drinks containers of all kinds are left polluting the natural world supporting the need for an ‘all-in’ deposit return system. 


Maddy Haughton-Boakes, Campaign Lead at CPRE, said:  ‘Litter left in our countryside, streets, parks and rivers isn’t just an eyesore, it can be extremely harmful to wildlife and nature, and cost tax-payers millions of pounds in clean-up costs every year. Through the collective effort of local people, this year’s Green Clean will transform local green spaces back to a beautiful litter-free state. Last year we collected a staggering number of harmful drinks cans, bottles, cartons and pouches, demonstrating how vital it is that every single type of drinks container is included England’s deposit return system. That small financial incentive will stop them from being littered, making such a huge difference to our environment and wildlife.’

To find out where your nearest Green Clean event is taking place, to sign up and for more information go to: cpre.org.uk/GreenClean.


Experts predict an impressive year for autumn colour! - Forestry England

maple leaves (Thomas Hendele / pixabay)Great news for autumn lovers, experts from Forestry England are predicting a fantastic autumn, with an impressive display of vibrant autumn colours that will start now and continue right through to mid-November.

For spectacular autumn colour, trees need a healthy balance of sunlight and rain to produce sugars, which create the colours in the leaves.

maple leaves (Thomas Hendele / pixabay)

Many of us were left feeling soggy at the start of the summer and data from the Met Office confirms that England experienced a spell of very wet weather in mid-June, with some parts of the UK receiving 2.5 times the monthly average rainfall. However, rain twinned with the sunshine that we experienced for much of July is a promising recipe for a spectacular show of seasonal colour in the nation’s woodlands this autumn.  There is also great news for our forest wildlife, with experts predicting a bumper year for fruit and nuts.

Andrew Smith, Forestry England’s director at Westonbirt, The National Arboretum in Gloucestershire explains: “The fruit and nut blossoms managed to escape the frost in early spring and the rain in June has helped the fruits to swell. July’s sunshine and warm weather helped them to continue to grow which means we should see a great year for fruit and nuts.  The same weather conditions are ideal for producing sugar in leaves which is further reassurance that it will be a brilliant year for autumn colour!”


How changes in land use could reduce the browning of lakes - Lund University

Over the past 50 years, the water in lakes and watercourses has turned increasingly brown. The so-called browning has a negative impact on both drinking water production and ecosystems. If nothing is done, the water is likely to turn even browner – however, there is hope.

Supported by a new study, researchers from Lund University and the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) are pointing to measures that could be taken with the purpose of mitigating and, in the long term, reversing this development.
Lakes, brooks, streams and rivers are turning brown due to iron and organic matter leaching from the surrounding soil into the water. This is a natural process that is common across the Northern Hemisphere. However, in recent decades, the colour has intensified and more and more lakes and watercourses have turned noticeably brown.
“Browning is a problem; however, the fact that land use is one of the drivers of this phenomenon, suggests it is possible to do something about it. Not least at the local level where forest owners’ associations and companies can take measures that may reverse the development”, says Emma Kritzberg, Lund University. 
Over the past hundred years, the focus on coniferous forests in forestry has contributed to the browning. Spruce has been planted near lakes resulting in much greater accumulation of organic matter than when the same ground was covered with deciduous forest or used as agricultural land.   A return to more deciduous trees and less coniferous forest near lakes is likely to be beneficial, according to Emma Kritzberg and her colleagues Lars-Anders Hansson, Lund University, and Hjalmar Laudon, SLU. Since land use has been underestimated as a factor contributing to browning, more research is needed to address the hypotheses we present as ways to mitigate browning. 

Read the paper: Kritzberg, E.S., Hasselquist, E.M., Škerlep, M. et al. Browning of freshwaters: Consequences to ecosystem services, underlying drivers, and potential mitigation measures Ambio (2019). doi: 10.1007/s13280-019-01227-5


Lack of land management contributed to devastating wildfire, report claims - British Association for Shooting and Conservation

The lack of active land management, including “controlled burning and mowing”, contributed to the severity of last year’s Llantysilio mountain wildfire, according to findings from a recent report.

The 63-page report on the Llantysilio mountain wildfire that ravaged over 290 hectares of uplands for over a month last year gave several recommendations on reducing the risk of wildfires in the future.

The report concluded: “The lack of robust land management over an extended period of time on the mountain contributed towards the length of time the fire burned and the devastation it caused. Therefore, a regular programme of land management activities is crucial if the risk of extensive environmental and economic damage from similar fires is to be lessened in future.”

Denbighshire’s Countryside Services commented on the severity of the wildfire saying, “in places it would take years to restore as the soil structure and seed stock has been destroyed”, and there was a risk that “further soil would be lost through the effects of wind and water run-off”.

The report commissioned by Denbighshire County Council’s Communities Scrutiny Committee is due to be heard at a meeting on 5th September. The report published on 29th August can be found here.


Scientific Publications

Hui Xiao, Eve McDonald-Madden, Régis Sabbadin, Nathalie Peyrard, Laura E. Dee & Iadine Chadès The value of understanding feedbacks from ecosystem functions to species for managing ecosystems Nature Communications volume 10, Article number: 3901 (2019)  doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-11890-7 Open Access


Tom McKenna, Ralph Blaney, Rob W. Brooker, David A. Ewing, Robin J. Pakeman, Paul Watkinson, David O'Brien,

Scotland’s natural capital asset index: Tracking nature’s contribution to national wellbeing, Ecological Indicators, Volume 107, 2019, 105645, ISSN 1470-160X, doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2019.105645.


Claire Feniuk Andrew Balmford Rhys E. Green Land sparing to make space for species dependent on natural habitats and high nature value farmland Proc. R. Soc. B doi: 10.1098/rspb.2019.1483


Evans Matthew R. Will natural resistance result in populations of ash trees remaining in British woodlands after a century of ash dieback disease? R. Soc. open sci. doi: 10.1098/rsos.190908



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