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A round up of the top countryside, conservation, wildlife and forestry stories as chosen by the CJS Team.


MMO calls for feedback on marine planning - Marine Management Organisation

The Marine Management Organisation is asking for feedback on the first outputs in the development of the next phase of marine plans.

A questionnaire on the first outputs of marine planning in the north east, north west, south east and south west has been launched.

The questionnaire, which is open until Friday 31 March 2017, asks for feedback on the recently published Issues Database, supporting evidence, proposed draft policies to date as well as a new interactive format.

It’s the first opportunity for stakeholders to see how marine planning is progressing in north east, north west, south east and south west marine plan areas, marking an important milestone in the marine planning process.

The questionnaire is part of an eight week programme of activity, which also includes a series of workshops.

The questionnaire and workshops are an opportunity to see how the issues and evidence gathered last year are being taken forward, and how proposed draft policies for the areas are being developed.

A new proposed format for marine plans is also introduced, which takes a shorter, more digital, interactive approach, linking directly to our Marine Information System (MIS).

To take part in the questionnaire visit the consultation website. 


Critical Solway Firth site secured for nature – RSPB Scotland

RSPB Scotland is delighted to announce today that thanks to public generosity a critical site on the Solway Firth has been secured for nature. Over 40,000 Svalbard barnacle geese migrate to this area every year, with a quarter of these settling at RSPB Scotland Mersehead. The sight and sound of these geese arriving each autumn is one of the most iconic moments in nature’s calendar.The public response to the appeal was outstanding and ensured that this crucial part of the Solway Firth is now part of the RSPB Scotland reserve, with many species set to benefit from the interconnected habitats that will be created. Mersehead is home to the only Scottish population of the country’s rarest amphibian, natterjack toads, whilst in the summer the songs of yellowhammers, linnets and lapwings fill the air. The autumn brings pintails, teals and widgeons to the reserve and waders such as oystercatchers, golden plovers and increasingly rare curlews join the geese during the colder months of the year.

Reedbeds from Meida hide, RSPB Mersehead (image: Kaleel Zibe, RSPB)Reedbeds from Meida hide, RSPB Mersehead (image: Kaleel Zibe, RSPB)

Over the next two years RSPB Scotland will be working to restore the special saltmarsh and sand dune habitats on this newest part of the reserve. This will create more nesting opportunities for birds such as redshanks and skylarks that breed in the saltmarsh and more ponds in the sand dunes suitable for the natterjack toad population to expand into. Work will begin this spring with the removal of scrub and non-native plant species.

Joining up the land in the reserve will also see benefits for the management of the site through revitalising burns and ditches to help to create more wetland areas, and visitors will be able to further immerse themselves in the nature rich Solway Firth through new access trails.


New report explores trees’ role in town and city life – Forestry Commission

A research report just published by the Forestry Commission offers new insight into the specific roles which trees play within the wider range of ecosystem services provided by greenspace in town and cities.

The report, which is based on a literature review, shows that woodlands, street trees, parks and other greenspace are given broad attention in the scientific literature. Papers focusing on green infrastructure as a whole are also common.  However, it found that there is very little reference in the literature to scale, and therefore whether it is individual trees, lines of trees or clusters of trees which principally provide each of the benefits.

A key objective of the report is therefore to illustrate the specific role of trees in providing benefits to society, as opposed to provision being assigned to green infrastructure in general, or to a particular greenspace type.  To this end it investigates scale-based urban forest elements, including single trees, lines of trees, clusters of trees, and woodland. The ecosystem services they provide are grouped into provisioning, regulating, and cultural services, and each service is considered in turn.

Download the free report from Forestry Commission Publications.


LED lighting could have major impact on wildlife – University of Exeter

LED street lighting can be tailored to reduce its impacts on the environment, according to new research by the University of Exeter.

The UK-based study found predatory spiders and beetles were drawn to grassland patches lit by LED lighting at night, but the number of species affected was markedly reduced when the lights were dimmed by 50% and switched off between midnight and 4am.

More and more of the world is being lit at night (University of Essex)More and more of the world is being lit at night (University of Essex)

LEDs made up just 9% of the global lighting market in 2011, but forecasts suggest they will account for 69% by 2020.

This has led to concerns about their effects on plants and animals, and the Exeter scientists say research is urgently needed to understand how best to prevent unforeseen ecological effects.

“We are making fundamental changes to the way we light the night-time environment, with potentially profound consequences for a range of species,” said Dr Thomas Davies, of the Environment and Sustainability Institute at the University of Exeter’s Penryn Campus. “The growth of LED lighting is an issue of global concern, and the number of documented impacts on the environment is growing rapidly. Our research shows that local authorities might be able to manage LED lighting in a way that reduces its environmental impacts. We now need to establish whether this is the case for a greater variety of species. Without appropriate management, our results suggest that the growing use of LED lighting will have impacts on the abundance of predatory invertebrates, potentially leading to knock on effects for other species in grassland food-webs.”


Rare habitats being damaged by off-road vehicles – Scottish Natural Heritage

Some of Scotland’s rarest habitats are being damaged as a result of illegal access by off road vehicles, warn Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH) and Police Scotland.

Rare habitats being damaged by off-road vehicles: Loch Fleet SSSI – Vehilce damage to sand dune (SNH)Sites at Loch Fleet near Golspie and Ben Wyvis, north of Dingwall, are protected as Sites of Special Scientific Interest, recognising their important sand dune and mountain habitats, as well as the wealth of wildlife that they support. They are also designated as National Nature Reserves (NNRs).

Rare habitats being damaged by off-road vehicles: Loch Fleet SSSI – Vehilce damage to sand dune (SNH)

NNRs are some of Scotland's crown jewels for wildlife and scenery. They are the magical and inspiring places to experience the incredible sights and sounds of the natural world. These reserves help protect an amazing range of wildlife and landscapes, including many rare species and habitats of national and international importance.

Unfortunately, the sensitive habitats on these NNRs are suffering ongoing damage as a result of illegal quad bike and motorbike access, with a recent spike in activity witnessed around the festive period and into 2017.

SNH is keen to encourage the public to visit these sites and have provided facilities such as footpaths and on-site interpretation. But access rights should always be exercised responsibly in line with the Scottish Outdoor Access Code – these rights don’t extend to motorised vehicles.


Increasing the water table in agricultural peatland could hold key to reducing UK’s greenhouse gas emissions – University of Sheffield

  • A third of greenhouse gases released by humans are caused by agriculture
  • Increasing water table in peat soils by 20cm reduces CO2 emissions and helps improve crop yield
  • UK’s peatlands are being lost at a rapid rate

Increasing the water table could help to slow down global warming, boost crop yields, and preserve peat soils according to a new study.

The research, led by scientists from the University of Sheffield, found increasing the level below which the ground is saturated with water – known as the water table – in radish fields by 20cm not only reduced soil CO2 emissions, but also improved the growth of crops.

Importantly, the study also showed a reduction in the rate of loss of peat soils converted into agricultural fields.

Around a third of greenhouse gases released by humans are caused by agriculture. Reducing this is critical in order to slow down climate change, however the world is facing a global shortage of food and agricultural land is a precious resource – adding to the challenge of food security. A significant proportion of the UK’s farming takes place on drained peatlands, which are some of the most productive soils for commercial agriculture. Draining naturally flooded peatlands, which are organically rich, triggers the carbon to oxidise and release CO2 into the atmosphere.


Computer game teaches tree health lessons – Centre for Ecology and Hydrology

Tree-health experts at the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) have played a key role in creating a new computer game which teaches valuable lessons in tree health.

It is hoped that the game, CALEDON, which is aimed at teaching people, from secondary school age upwards, more about how we can sustainably manage our forests to cope with new pests and diseases, could become part of the science curriculum.

The game is a virtual forest survival strategy game where players make decisions about the tree species and seed sources to use for planting, what and when to cut down, and how to cope with pest and disease outbreaks. All affect whether their forest prospers or declines.

Players learn, through different levels of the game, about how different species have distinct ecology and how making use of diversity can help to keep a forest resilient. They also learn about the wide range of things – from pests and diseases to illegal logging to unexpected animal herds – that forest managers have to deal with to keep their forests going

CALEDON is underpinned by new science from seven research partners in the UK’s PROTREE project which is part of the £7 million Tree Health and Plant Biosecurity Initiative that supports research and engages with stakeholders in plant health.

Download or play CALEDON  by clicking here. 


Think before you Tweet - BASC 

BASC is urging its members to think twice about what they post and share on social media.

The warning comes after a man had his shotgun licence revoked by police after he ‘liked’ Facebook posts deemed offensive. He appealed the decision and won.  BASC’s dedicated firearms team has already reported a rise in calls on the issue

Duncan Thomas, BASC north director, said: “Social Media has some incredible uses and I use Facebook and Twitter on a daily basis both personally and professionally. It’s the modern, rapid way of communicating with an enormous range of the shooting community. It has however got certain disadvantages and there are many pitfalls for the inexperienced. Never post anything that can lead someone to your door or disclose details of your security arrangements, always close your profile down into “private only” where only your trusted friends and contacts can see your material. Always remember that even a deleted post is retrievable, nothing truly vanishes forever and a “screen grab” can seize instantly what you have posted, even in error. Never post anything your mother wouldn’t be happy viewing.”

If you would rather know who is reading your social media posts you should reassess your privacy settings to keep yourself and your information safe and secure.

CJS reminds you that this also important when applying for jobs, read more in our Helpful Hints.


National roll-out of new approach to great crested newt licensing – Natural England

Natural England is to implement an innovative new approach to the conservation of great crested newts across the country.

The new approach has been piloted in partnership with Woking borough council in Surrey. It has focused on bringing the greatest benefits to the amphibians while streamlining the licensing process for housing developers. The approach will now start to be introduced across the country after its roll-out was announced in the Department for Communities and Local Government’s Housing White Paper.

Great crested newt © Michael Hammett via Natural EnglandGreat crested newt © Michael Hammett via Natural England

This new 3-year programme will survey areas where newts are most prevalent, map the potential impacts of development and propose local conservation strategies for the species in partnership. As part of the project, great crested newt habitat is enhanced or created prior to any development taking place, saving developers time and money, and making newt populations more healthy and resilient.

Natural England’s Chairman, Andrew Sells, said: "We are grateful to DCLG for funding the national roll-out of this ambitious new approach to the licensing of great crested newts. It is a ringing endorsement of Natural England’s work to modernise the licensing of protected species. Populations of great crested newts can struggle when they become isolated. Creating connected habitats across the country is the single most positive thing we can do for their survival, by allowing them to spread naturally. At the same time, the strategic approach to licensing helps developers to avoid costs and delays to their projects. This roll-out is key to helping us ensure that regulation better serves both the natural environment and the economy."

The announcement was welcomed by: Dr Tony Gent, CEO of Amphibian and Reptile Conservation, Stephen Trotter, Director, The Wildlife Trusts England and President of the Country Land and Business Association, Ross Murray. Click through to read their responses.


Big Loopholes For Tiny Microbeads In Government’s Proposed Ban – Marine Conservation Society

YouGov polling for the microbeads coalition has shown that a large proportion of people wash make-up and skincare products down the drain. Yet while some of these product types have been shown to contain microplastic ingredients, they could fall outside of the government’s proposed microbeads ban.

Defra’s current proposal is restricted to “rinse-off” products, an ambiguous term which has caused confusion among industry and campaigners alike. But these findings suggest that products containing microplastics will continue to enter the ocean if the government excludes them from the microbeads ban.

The survey found that:

  • 42% of users wash off face make-up (e.g. foundation, blusher, concealer) down the drain
  • 60% of people who don’t use make-up, but do use skincare products like sun cream wash them down the drain
  • A third of people using lip and eye products wash them down the drain (33% and 34% respectively)
  • Across all three make-up types, 42% of people who wear make-up end up washing it down the drain

The poll also found that the majority of people who wear any make-up (61%) rarely or never read product label information regarding removal methods for face, eye and lip make-up products.

Click through to read a joint statement from the microbeads coalition, which consists of the Environmental Investigation Agency, Fauna & Flora International, Greenpeace UK and the Marine Conservation Society


Surveys record highest numbers of three dolphin species – Hebridean Whale & Dolphin Trust

Record numbers of three dolphin species off Scotland’s west coast were recorded by conservation charity Hebridean Whale and Dolphin Trust in its marine research expeditions in 2016.

From the trust’s specialized research yacht Silurian, volunteers and scientists recorded 2,303 individual common dolphins, 42 bottlenose dolphins and 94 Risso’s dolphins – the figures for all three species being the highest ever recorded in its annual survey seasons.
Average annual figures documented over the previous 14 years were 463 individual common dolphins, 14 bottlenose dolphins and 12 Risso’s dolphins. For common dolphins, these records range from 0 individuals encountered in a couple of the earlier field seasons to 1,862 during the 2007 season.
Dr. Lauren Hartny-Mills, Science Officer of Hebridean Whale and Dolphin Trust, said: “The reasons for the high number of sightings of these charismatic dolphin species – and the broader effects on the marine environment and other species – remain unclear. But the intriguing findings highlight the importance of on-going monitoring and research – to strengthen our understanding of what is taking place in Hebridean waters, and to ensure well-informed conservation action.”


More research needed to understand effects of microplastics on land-based ecosystems - Centre for Ecology & Hydrology

A review of evidence led by experts at the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH) has highlighted the need for further research to determine the extent to which microplastics are polluting and harming land-based ecosystems.

The review, published in the journal Science of the Total Environment, has revealed a large degree of uncertainty as to how much, and in what way, waste plastic may be damaging terrestrial environments, and what size and type of plastic might be the biggest problem.

Researchers also accept that it is not fully understood to what extent microplastic pollutants are released into the environment through everyday products, accidentally or through wind transfer.

Sample showing microplastic particles collected from a tributary of the river Thames (image: CEH)Sample showing microplastic particles collected from a tributary of the river Thames (image: CEH)

In 2014, in Europe, more than 311 million tonnes of plastic was produced and it is estimated that by 2050 this will spiral to 33 billion tonnes a year. Each year it is believed between 473,000 and 910,000 metric tonnes of plastic waste is released and retained within land-based environments – or between 4 and 23 times the amount estimated to be deposited in oceans.

Lead author Alice Horton, a research associate in microplastics and toxic pollutants at the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, said there are still questions that need to be answered to fully understand the potential for 'microplastics to have detrimental effects on the physiology of species across many ecological niches'.

Alice said, "There is evidence to show that microplastics can have harmful effects on organisms, hindering their ability to feed, reproduce and defend themselves against predators, with effects likely to vary between types and sizes of microplastics.

"This could have significant knock-on effects within ecosystems. Despite growing interest in microplastics within the wider environment, the majority of studies to date have been carried out within the oceans on marine organisms. Here at CEH we are interested in the start of the chain, when microplastics first enter the environment to land and rivers and the organisms that may be affected there."

Read Alice Horton’s blog post giving more details of the research: First evidence of mircoplastics in UK freshwater environments

Access the paper: Alice A. Horton, Alexander Walton, David J. Spurgeon, Elma Lahive, Claus Svendsen, Microplastics in freshwater and terrestrial environments: Evaluating the current understanding to identify the knowledge gaps and future research priorities, Science of The Total Environment, DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.01.190.


Bats and churches to benefit thanks to National Lottery – Natural England

The Heritage Lottery Fund (HLF) has approved the development stage and initial funding of £3.8million for the 5 year “Bats in Churches” partnership project, bringing together wildlife and heritage conservation and church organisations to save bats and protect churches.

Greater horseshoe bats (image: ©Mike Hamnett, Natural England)Greater horseshoe bats (image: ©Mike Hamnett, Natural England)

The ground-breaking project will:

  • trial and perfect new techniques to enable bats and church congregations to live together
  • build up professional expertise and volunteer skill to share the best solutions with hundreds more churches
  • bring together church communities and bat enthusiasts to create a shared understanding and appreciation of England’s historic places of worship and our rare flying mammals

Natural England’s Chairman, Andrew Sells, said:" This is a splendid result for both congregations and bats, who have shared churches for centuries but not always happily. We’ve been working very hard for a number of years with our partners to find ways to help bats and people coexist peacefully in these beautiful, historic buildings. This funding will allow us to capitalise on that good work and find innovative new ways of resolving the conflict. It will provide a lasting legacy for these wonderful churches and the people and bats that rely on them. The project will provide help and support to places of worship across England where large bat populations can sometimes have a negative impact on historic buildings and the communities who use them."

Click through to read comments and response from: HLF’s CEO, Ros Kerslake, Rt Hon Sir Tony Baldry, Chair of the Church Buildings Council, Julia Hanmer, Joint Chief Executive of the Bat Conservation Trust Deborah Lamb, Deputy Chief Executive of Historic England and Crispin Truman OBE, Chief Executive of the Churches Conservation Trust


New Tesco scheme gets endangered bees buzzing again –Tesco Plc

Stricken bees struggling to get enough nectar to feed themselves are being given a sweetener thanks to a sugar collection scheme run by Tesco.

Sugar from split bags that is no longer fit for human consumption is collected by the supermarket’s stores in the Cornwall and Devon area and sent to a local bee conservation charity.

Bee (image: Tesco)Beekeepers then turn the sugar into syrup or fondant which is given to the bees as a replacement for nectar and honey.

Bee (image: Tesco)

Since 2007 the UK’s bee population has dwindled by a third as a result of fewer wildflowers, pests and various diseases, all of which makes it harder for bees to produce enough honey to feed themselves throughout the winter.

Lucy Hughes, Tesco’s Community Manager at Callington store in Cornwall said: “Bees are not only central to the process of pollinating crops which later become our food but are an iconic part of the Great British countryside.  I hope this small but important project will go some way to support our local bees and help them through the winter months.”


NFU calls for action to protect countryside from fly-tippers - NFU 

The British countryside is being blighted by a fly-tipping epidemic and more needs to be done to prevent rubbish from ruining our iconic landscape, the NFU said today.

Enville fly tip (image: NFU)Enville fly tip (image: NFU)

The call comes as farmers address the 'Keep Britain Tidy' campaign’s annual conference held in Leeds today (9 February).

The great British countryside is being blighted by a fly-tipping epidemic and more needs to be done to prevent rubbish from ruining our iconic landscape, the NFU said today.

The call comes as farmers address the Keep Britain Tidy campaign’s annual conference held in Leeds today.

The sight of dumped mattresses, carpets, dishwashers, old furniture and black bags of household waste on farmland is becoming widespread with two thirds of all farms affected.  Last year there were 900,000 incidents of fly-tipping across England – a 5% increase from the previous year.

With rural tourism contributing £130m to the nation’s economy (2015-16) the NFU believes more needs to be done to protect the countryside from fly-tipping and more action taken by local authorities and police to help farmers battling this issue. Under the current rules farmers and landowners are left facing hefty bills to remove vast amounts of rubbish dumped illegally on their land.


New shoots for forest planting – Forestry Commission Scotland

A new plan to streamline the tree planting process in Scotland will be a powerful catalyst for delivering the ambitious tree planting targets recently announced by the Scottish Government in its draft climate change plan.

The tree planting targets are to be raised on a stepped basis from the current 10,000ha a year to 15,000ha a year by 2025.

The increase in planting will grow this crucial forest carbon sink, helping the fight against climate change, as well as creating economic growth and protecting jobs, mostly in rural areas.

The delivery plan, announced today by Rural Economy Secretary Fergus Ewing, contains a package of measures to drive forward and speed up the tree planting process.

The publication of the delivery plan also coincides with another record breaking round of planting approvals. Forestry Commission Scotland has just approved 96 woodland proposals, covering 1,300ha of new woodland creation and totalling £5.5 million. This is the largest area of woodland creation to be approved in a single clearing round since the Forestry Grants Scheme opened in October 2015.

The plan is a direct response to recommendations from Jim Mackinnon CBE, who was commissioned by Scottish Government, to explore the current arrangements for forest planting approval processes.


Hundreds of trees planted in 24 hours in bid to reduce Lake District flooding – National Trust

Hundreds of trees will be planted across the Lake District today (Friday 10 February) in the first mass tree planting event ever attempted by the National Trust in the national park.

The trees will help reduce the impacts of future flooding and restore wood pasture habitats that have been lost, National Trust rangers say.

More than 90 people will plant a total of 1,400 trees at five sites in the Lake District National Park, including the shores of Lake Windermere and the approach to Scafell Pike, England’s highest mountain.

Saplings planted in the shadow of flood damage in the Coledale valley, near Keswick. Credit: John Malley / National TrustSaplings planted in the shadow of flood damage in the Coledale valley, near Keswick. Credit: John Malley / National Trust

As they mature, it is expected that the trees will help to trap rainwater and mitigate the effects of flooding. In late 2015 Storm Desmond brought record rainfall to parts of the Lake District, with 34.1cm of rain falling on Honister Pass, Borrowdale, over just 24 hours. Storm Desmond left the National Trust facing a £1million clean-up bill.

Mike Innerdale, assistant director of operations for the National Trust, said: “This is a real community effort, with dozens of volunteers helping to plant trees – restoring important wood pasture habitats and slow the flow of storm water off the fells.  With major storms occurring more frequently, we’re working with farmers and local residents to look at ways of making the Lakes more resilient to flooding.”

At Braithwaite, near Keswick, rangers, residents and volunteers from the Woodland Trust will plant 500 native broadleaf trees over two hectares of pasture in the Coledale valley. In 2015 flooding caused a major landslide in the valley that lead to the village of Braithwaite being inundated with silt, boulders and other debris.

By planting the trees, Rangers and volunteers plan to restore areas of ancient woodland, create wood pasture and plant new hedgerows. These will offer a welcome home for birds like warblers, flycatchers and redstarts.

All of the 1,400 saplings that will be planted are native woodland species, including oak, birch, hazel, rowan and crab apple.


Green prescription' scheme shows success at Portmore Lough – RSPB Northern Ireland

An innovative wellbeing project at a local nature reserve has helped improve participants’ mental health, results have revealed.

Woodland walk (image: RSPB)Woodland walk (image: RSPB)

The Head to Nature project was a 12 week pilot project organised by RSPB Northern Ireland in partnership with Derriaghy Social and Educational Centre, part of the South Eastern Health Trust, and the Public Health Agency.  The project saw eight service users voluntarily attend Portmore Lough nature reserve near Aghalee to carry out nature-related activities like guided walks, wildlife photography and practical conservation work on the reserve.  The participants all suffered from mild mental health problems like depression and anxiety.

The World Health Organisation estimates that depression and depression-related illness will become the greatest source of ill health by 2020. However in Northern Ireland there has been a lack of research looking at the mental health benefits of exposure to nature.

Participants in the Portmore Lough project were asked to fill out questionnaires at the beginning and end of the scheme and their answers were marked against the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale.  The mean score in week one was 36.25 – classed as ‘below average’ wellbeing. But by week 12 the mean score had risen to 49.37 which is classed as ‘average’ wellbeing, showing that the Head to Nature scheme had a positive impact on the participants’ wellbeing.  There was also an impressive 100% participant retention rate throughout the project. In comparison, only around one in eight people referred to gym programmes by their GP complete the course.


Scientific Publications

Stanbury, A. et al (2017) Prioritising islands in the United Kingdom and crown dependencies for the eradication of invasive alien vertebrates and rodent biosecurity. European Journal of Wildlife Research. DOI: 10.1007/s10344-017-1084-7


Braaker, S., Obrist, M. K., Ghazoul, J. and Moretti, M. (2017), Habitat connectivity and local conditions shape taxonomic and functional diversity of arthropods on green roofs. J Anim Ecol. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1111/1365-2656.12648


Emily B. Dennis, Byron J.T. Morgan, David B. Roy, Tom M. Brereton, Urban indicators for UK butterflies, Ecological Indicators, Volume 76, May 2017, Pages 184-193, ISSN 1470-160X,DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2017.01.009.


Tony Prato, Decision errors in evaluating tipping points for ecosystem resilience, Ecological Indicators, Volume 76, May 2017, Pages 275-280, ISSN 1470-160X, DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2017.01.013.


Lara A. Roman, Bryant C. Scharenbroch, Johan P.A. Östberg, Lee S. Mueller, Jason G. Henning, Andrew K. Koeser, Jessica R. Sanders, Daniel R. Betz, Rebecca C. Jordan, Data quality in citizen science urban tree inventories, Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, Available online 4 February 2017, ISSN 1618-8667, DOI: 10.1016/j.ufug.2017.02.001.


Daniel Hanley, Tomáš Grim, Branislav Igic, Peter Samaš, Analía V. López, Matthew D. Shawkey, Mark E. Hauber Egg discrimination along a gradient of natural variation in eggshell coloration Proc.R.Soc.B DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2016.2592.


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