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A round up of the top countryside, conservation, wildlife and forestry stories as chosen by the CJS Team.


Police go online to mark Wildlife Crime Awareness Week – North Yorkshire Police

North Yorkshire Police are urging members of the public to join officers in supporting national Wildlife Crime Awareness Week.

The week runs from 19 to 25 October 2015, and is an opportunity for people to get involved in the fight against wildlife crime - both online, by raising awareness, and offline, by acting as the 'eyes and ears' of the police, particularly in rural areas.
Police are also marking the week by launching a dedicated wildlife crime Twitter account - the first of its kind in the region.
North Yorkshire Police has 16 specially trained Wildlife Crime Officers, who, along with their normal duties, investigate crimes against wildlife. They will either assist other police officers or take the lead role in the investigation of more intricate cases, and can also offer training and advice to colleagues. They also give talks to local schools and community groups, support local schemes such as Farmwatch and Rural Watch, and provide advice to the public alongside other organisations at countryside events like the Great Yorkshire Show.
The new Twitter account, @NYPWCOS, has already been used to share information and warnings about illegal traps, poaching offences and badger persecution.


Ecological intensification increases farm yield, research shows – Centre for Ecology & Hydrology

Creating wildlife habitats by removing up to 8% of agricultural land from production has little effect on - and can even increase - crop yield, Wheat crop on an arable farm in England (credit: Paul Fisher)new research from the Centre of Ecology & Hydrology shows.

The experimental study, published in the Royal Society's Proceedings B journal, provides the first direct evidence for the ecological intensification of agricultural systems, an approach that aims to enhance ecosystem services such as pollination and crop pest management across commercial farms.

Wheat crop on an arable farm in England (credit: Paul Fisher)

The research team, led by Professor Richard Pywell of the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, removed lower yielding and awkward field edges and corners from food production in order to create wildlife friendly habitat on a 900 ha commercial arable farm in central England.

Habitat enhancements included small patches sown with wildflowers, legumes and grasses to provide flowers for pollinators and refuges for predators of crop pests.

Access the paper at: Richard F Pywell et al. Wildlife-friendly farming increases crop yield: evidence for ecological intensification. 2015. Proceedings B. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2015.1740


Record breaking numbers of pink-footed geese at Montrose Basin – Scottish Wildlife Trust

25% of the UK's pink-footed geese population are currently at Montrose Basin (Scottish Wildlife Trust)The Trust, can announce a record breaking number of pink-footed geese at the Montrose Basin Visitor Centre and Wildlife Reserve following an official count on Sunday. 

As part of the Icelandic Breeding Goose Census, which aims to count all of the geese in the UK, the team of dedicated volunteers at Montrose Basin, led by Montrose Basin Ranger, Anna Cheshier recorded a staggering 85,632.

25% of the UK's pink-footed geese population are currently at Montrose Basin (Scottish Wildlife Trust)

On average, 60,000 pink-footed geese descend on Montrose Basin each year, after making a colossal 1,200km migration from Iceland. In 2014, a record 78,970 geese arrived at Montrose Basin, beating the previous record of 65,060 set in 2010. Last year’s Icelandic Breeding Goose Count estimated the pink-footed geese population to be 393,170 - 90% of which were recorded in the UK. Currently, nearly 25% of all the pink-footed geese in the UK are at Montrose Basin.


School Children show their 'Wild' side at Films Award Ceremony - Avon Wildlife Trust

Winning pupils from St Peter's Church of England Primary School with Miranda Krestovnikoff (Avon Wildlife Trust) Winning pupils from St Peter's Church of England Primary School with Miranda Krestovnikoff (Avon Wildlife Trust)

Bristol primary school children showcased their own wildlife films at an award ceremony held at M Shed on Sunday 18th October.

• Young filmmakers showcase their wildlife films at Awards at M Shed
• Project enables 1,000 children from 30 schools to learn and have fun in natural environment
• Getting children outdoors is crucial to the future of our environment

The Wild Schools Film Challenge is an innovate project organised by Avon Wildlife Trust and supported by Rolls-Royce and in partnership with Bristol Natural History Consortium's Wild Encounters project. Over the last year 1000 pupils from 30 schools have engaged with the project.

Wildlife TV presenter Miranda Krestovnikoff hosted the award ceremony, which gave the budding young film makers the opportunity to present their films to their families, schools and industry experts.

The overall winner for the 2015 Wild Schools Film Challenge was the 'Nature is Everywhere' film made by pupils at St Peter's Church of England Primary School.


Report explores recovery of habitats and species in Scotland’s new Marine Protected Areas – Scottish Natural Heritage

A new report has shown that once damaged, nationally and internationally important marine wildlife and habitats may take tens or even hundreds of years to recover.

The study, commissioned by Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH), reviewed factors that may help or limit the recovery of habitats and species such as horse mussel and maerl beds, common skate and native oysters. It also considered ways to help address any declines.

The findings will help the Scottish Government and SNH take action to look after the Scottish Marine Protected Areas (MPA) network. This will include action for Nature Conservation MPAs, which were put in place last year, partly to help support the recovery of marine habitats such as flameshell and maerl beds.

Published studies on the recovery of marine habitats and species are quite limited, but this study found that there is potential for recovery to occur if conditions are right. It also found that there is a lack of basic knowledge about the biology of some habitats and species, which is important for understanding how they might be able to recover. The need for further research in these areas was highlighted.

Read the report here


Scotland’s remotest regions recorded using Google map technology – National Trust for Scotland

One man has recorded some of Scotland’s highest and remotest regions using the Google Street View Trekker, providing breathtaking 360O degree views that can be seen with the click of a mouse.Simon Goodall wildlife film editor (NTS)

Simon Goodall wildlife film editor (NTS)

Simon Goodall, the National Trust for Scotland’s wildlife filming editor braved blizzards, rain and wind to capture stunning views of the Trust’s countryside properties. Street View cameras are more often associated with urban roads and streets, mounted onto cars to record but Simon used a Street View trekker, supplied by Google, to capture his unique footage.
The result is a captivating perspective of some of Scotland’s best known wild destinations, allowing online viewers to trace paths along mountain ridges or scan the landscape from island cliffs or high waterfalls. The 18kg camera was mounted on a rucksack style harness to allow him the relative agility to tackle wild paths in the company of Trust rangers for added safety.
“We had the loan of the camera for two months and deciding which properties to feature was difficult given the extent of the Trust’s countryside properties, but we have captured mountains, waterfalls, islands and sealife,” Simon said.


Yorkshire environment project wins national award – Environment Agency

Wild Trout Trust praises Upper Aire habitat scheme

Pictured from left are: Richard Aylard from the award sponsors, Thames Water; Pete Turner from the Environment Agency; and Shaun Leonard from the Wild Trout Trust. (Environment Agency)Pictured from left are: Richard Aylard from the award sponsors, Thames Water; Pete Turner from the Environment Agency; and Shaun Leonard from the Wild Trout Trust.

(Environment Agency)

An Environment Agency-led project in Yorkshire has been recognised by the Wild Trout Trust at its 2015 Conservation Awards in London.

The Upper Aire Land Management and Habitat Project won the award for best large-scale habitat enhancement scheme.

The Environment Agency has been working in partnership over the last five years to tackle diffuse pollution in the Upper Aire catchment, which runs through the Yorkshire Dales National Park. Working with the Yorkshire Wildlife Trust and the Yorkshire Farming and Wildlife Partnership has enabled the project to tackle the issues with landowners and farmers.

The most common causes of water pollution are rain water that runs off agricultural and urban land, and the discharges of waste water from industry and sewage overflows.

Starting with demonstration plots to prove the benefits, the project has worked with 15 landowners to carry out work such as fencing buffer strips, visited over 50 farms to advise on nutrient management and planted 27 hectares of woodland.


Ground-breaking mapping project reveals 50 years of land use change along the coast – National Trust

Original survey carried out in 1965 to highlight the impact of development on our coastline has been updated to reveal land use changes

94% of coastline considered to be ‘pristine’ 50 years ago is now protected through the National Trust or through the planning system

While three quarters (74%) of the coast remains undeveloped, urban/built-up areas have increased by 42% (17,557 hectares), adding the equivalent of a city the size of Manchester to our coastline

Sunset over Wembury Point, near Plymouth, Devon. Credit National TrustSunset over Wembury Point, near Plymouth, Devon. Credit National Trust

One of the biggest mapping projects of the 20th century has been repeated fifty years on by the National Trust to understand how the way that land is used along the coast has changed since 1965.

The report, released today by the conservation charity, finds that overall the modern planning system has worked with development contained and directed to the most suitable locations. However, it also warns against complacency and highlights the need, too, for a marine planning system that effectively manages the competing priorities at the coast.

On 11 May 1965, concerned about the potential impact of development and industrialisation on the coast, the National Trust launched the fundraising campaign, Neptune. That summer, as part of the Trust’s efforts to focus public attention on these threats, geography students from the University of Reading were appointed to survey how land was being used at the coast.

In addition to establishing land use, the survey sought to identify coastline considered to be ‘pristine’ and in need of long-term protection from development and poor land management.

Now, five decades on, the survey has been repeated by geographers at the University of Leicester. They were commissioned by the National Trust to revisit the pioneering mapping project to determine the location and nature of land use change along the coast and establish how successful the Neptune campaign had been.


Public demand bigger bike budgets – Sustrans

Bike Life, the biggest survey ever conducted on attitudes to cycling in the UK, shows that three quarters (75%) of people want national governments to invest more in making cycling safer.

We commissioned independent research, along with seven leading cities across the UK, which has revealed that the 11,000 people questioned wanted on average £26 per person to be spent on cycling annually, as part of the £300 per person currently spent on transport.


Pick up a polecat – Tracking the polecat’s comeback – The Mammal Society

This magnificent animal was almost exterminated from the UK by persecution.  In the early 20thCentury, polecats remained mainly in mid-Wales.  However, the good news is they have been staging a comeback.  The National Polecat Survey is now asking members of the public to help by sending in records of any sightings.  This will allow the current distributions of the recovering population to be mapped, and help to pinpoint where conservation efforts should be targeted. 

Image courtesy of the Vincent Wildlife TrustImage courtesy of the Vincent Wildlife Trust

Polecats are part of the mustelid family and so are closely related to weasels and stoats. Their main prey in Britain is wild rabbits. Their most striking feature is the mask-like pattern of dark and light fur on their face.  They are elusive animals that use a wide range of habitats, but they can sometimes be spotted crossing roads, particularly at night. 

Dr Johnny Birks from The Mammal Society says, “The British population of polecats was historically decimated to protect poultry and game birds like the pheasant. Thanks to a decline in numbers of gamekeepers and partial legal protection, persecution of polecats has gradually diminished, allowing the population to recover.  This is very exciting news as elsewhere in Europe the animal remains in trouble.”


Wasp species, new to the UK, discovered on a stroll to the car park - RSPB

It has taken two years to publish, but experts have concluded that a wasp caught in a chance sweep of a butterfly net at the RSPB’s Broadwater Warren nature reserve is a type of wasp never before recorded in the UK.

It was back in 2013 as Tony Davis of Butterfly Conservation was undertaking a moth monitoring programme at Broadwater Warren when he came across an ichneumon wasp specimen; a parasitic wasp, Lymantrichneumon disparis, now known to be a genus and species new to Britain.

 Tony said: “I’d finished my work and was leaving the reserve but couldn’t resist one last sweep on my net and that’s when I found the wasp. I knew it was something special, but I could never have guessed it was an entirely new species to the country.”

 Dr Gavin Broad is an expert on ichneumonid wasps, employed by the Natural History Museum. The specimen was sent to him for identification. It has no common name and no other specimen has yet been found.  Dr Broad believes the find was a recent colonist from continental Europe. He said: “It’s not uncommon to find parasitic wasps new to Britain, but to find a new genus for the country that is large and showy is very unusual and good evidence of change in our fauna. I knew almost immediately what this wasp was as I’d recently been looking at some Japanese specimens of Lymantrichneumon disparis. It was rather surprising to see one from Britain! Inevitably, it took me quite a while to publish on this.”


UK National Parks, partners sign joint statement promising closer coordination - National Parks

Twenty-one of Britain's leading conservation and environmental bodies have reaffirmed their commitment to safeguard the future of the country's finest heritage. Partners have signed up to a range of shared outcomes through a Joint Statement that will support the sustainable management of, and public access to: archaeological sites, monuments, landscapes, and buildings.  The signatories want to see an improvement in the conservation and interpretation of the historic environment and cultural heritage within the UK's National Parks.

Tony Gates, chief executive of Northumberland National Park Authority and UK Policy Lead on the Historic Environment, said: "This is a landmark for the natural and cultural heritage of Britain's finest landscapes.  Right across England, Scotland, and Wales, from the Cairngorms to Pembrokeshire and the South Downs, the organisations that are charged with the responsibility of conserving our past now look to even closer working and assured future."

Peter Charlesworth, chairman of National Parks UK, said: "The Joint Statement on the Historic Environment is a demonstration of the partners' continued shared commitment to protect the wealth of cultural heritage in our National Parks."

Duncan Wilson, chief executive of Historic England, said:  "National Parks include many areas prized for their remoteness, tranquillity, and their importance to nature conservation, but despite their apparent wildness, the landscapes we see today are also cultural landscapes, telling the story of thousands of years of human interaction with nature.  It gives me great pleasure to be signing the National Parks Joint Statement on behalf of Historic England and in doing so, to renew our commitment to collaborate with those charged with managing and protecting these most treasured landscapes."


Lakes and Dales decisions create largest area of English National Park land - defra 

Environment Secretary Elizabeth Truss announces the decision to extend the Yorkshire Dales and the Lake District.

Yorkshire Dales National Park, Mallerstang Dale (image: Natural England)Yorkshire Dales National Park, Mallerstang Dale (image: Natural England)

Yorkshire, Cumbria and Lancashire will share the largest area of almost continuous National Park land following the decision to extend two of England’s most celebrated National Parks, the Yorkshire Dales and the Lake District.

The announcement by Environment Secretary Elizabeth Truss today (23/10/15) will see the Yorkshire Dales grow by nearly 24% and Lake District by 3%. This will virtually join up these beautiful spaces, boosting rural tourism in the area, supporting rural businesses and potentially adding millions more to the £4 billion already generated by visitors to our stunning National Parks each year.

The announcement, which will protect these landscapes for future generations, was made as the Secretary of State visited Wensleydale Creamery, based in the Yorkshire Dales National Park and home of the protected Yorkshire Wensleydale cheese – one of many successful businesses within National Parks.

Commenting on the decision to extend the Parks Environment Secretary Elizabeth Truss, said: " The Dales and the Lakes have some of our country’s finest landscapes, beautiful vistas and exciting wildlife. They are part of our national identity.  I am delighted to be able to announce this extension which will join these two unique National Parks and protect even more space for generations to come. National Parks are fabulous national assets that welcome over 90 million tourists and contribute to our vibrant rural economy – we are committed to helping them thrive."

For further information including maps and next steps, see the decision page.


And plenty of reactions: 

Natural England welcomes the decision to extend the Yorkshire Dales and Lake District National Parks

The Secretary of State Elizabeth Truss MP has today (23/10) confirmed extensions to the Lake District and Yorkshire Dales National Parks.The confirmed variation to the Lake District National Park will include an additional area of land totalling approximately 27 square miles, situated in Cumbria. It will include land:

  • to the east, to include an area from Birkbeck fells Common to Whinfell Common
  • to the south, to include an area from Helsington Barrows to Sizergh Fell, an area north of Sizergh Castle and part of the Lyth valley
  • The confirmed variation to the Yorkshire Dales National Park will include an additional area of land totalling approximately 161 square miles, situated in Cumbria and, for the first time, an area of Lancashire:
  • to the north, to include parts of the Orton Fells, the northern Howgill Fells, Wild Boar Fell, and Mallerstang
  • to the south, to include Barbon, Casterton and Leck fells, the River Lune and part of Firbank Fell and other fells to the west of the River Lune

These new areas join the ranks of some of the country’s most highly protected landscapes and amount to the most significant addition to England’s National Parks since the confirmation of the South Downs in 2009.

Speaking in the Yorkshire Dales National Park today, Natural England’s Chairman Andrew Sells, added: "I very much welcome the Secretary of State’s decision to extend the Yorkshire Dales and Lake District National Parks in line with the recommendations made by Natural England. The Chancellor’s Northern Powerhouse depends upon the ‘natural capital’ provided by our iconic National Parks. They represent some of England’s most treasured natural assets. With international appeal, their stunning landscapes stand out as a beacon to the people who come to enjoy them whilst their intrinsic value drives the communities, businesses and biodiversity they support. Extending these today confirms their great importance and provides them with the recognition they richly deserve."


Extension to the National Park - Lake District National Park

Defra has today announced an extension will be made to the boundary of the Lake District and Yorkshire Dales National Parks, following a recommendation from Natural England.

In the Lake District this will include an area in the east from Birkbeck Fells Common to Whinfell Common, and an area in the south from Helsington Barrows to Sizergh Fell, and part of the Lyth Valley. The total extension will account for around a three per cent increase in size in the park (Yorkshire Dales’ extension is around 24 per cent). 

We are supportive of the extension to the Lake District National Park as we believe it will create a boundary line that is most appropriate for the landscape. We welcome the opportunity to maintain and improve the environment in these areas, particularly rights of ways, for the benefit of everyone who enjoys the Lake District and surrounding areas.

We consider the extension a long-overdue measure from when the boundaries were initially set in 1951, when the Lake District National Park was created. At that time, they were set to follow local political administrative boundaries, rather than the more natural geography of the landscape.

However, resources must be put in place to fund the management of this additional land, and we look forward to clarifying exactly how this will be implemented ahead of the extension coming into effect in 2016.


Thumbs up to expansion of Yorkshire Dales National Park - Yorkshire Dales National Park

The Yorkshire Dales National Park will be increased by nearly a quarter in the next year following the announcement by Environment Secretary Elizabeth Truss today (October 23) that its boundary is being extended.

The news means the area covered by the National Park will expand by nearly 24 per cent while the Lake District National Park will increase by three per cent –changes involving 188 square miles.

Extending the boundaries of these beautiful and internationally iconic areas should provide a welcome boost for rural tourism in the area, support rural businesses and potentially add millions more to the £4 billion already generated by visitors to the National Parks each year.

Yorkshire Dales National Park Authority Chairman Peter Charlesworth said: “We are thrilled and delighted these stunning landscapes have been recognised as worthy of national park status. The decision is particularly welcome after the tremendous work of so many people from these communities who fought so hard for national park status. It is marvellous that, even at a time of financial austerity, Government have recognised the equality of these landscapes and designated them as national parks.”

The Authority Chief Executive David Butterworth said:  “Now the hard work starts. We will be listening to and learning from the local communities, farmers, landowners and businesses to enable us to develop productive, long-term relationships with all these parties. Working together with others, the National Park Authority is determined to play a leading part in making the most of the wonderful opportunities this decision offers for both the landscape and local economy.”


National Parks extension welcomed - CPRE

A longstanding campaign by CPRE, Campaign for National Parks, the Friends of the Lake District and the Yorkshire Dales Society to join two national parks, protecting several important landscapes, has come to fruition with the announcement that the extension will go ahead.

CPRE and fellow campaigners welcomed the news of the Lake District and Yorkshire Dales National Park extensions, saying it was a fantastic that the Government has finally demonstrated its commitment to the long-term protection of England’s finest landscapes.

“It is great to hear that the Secretary of State, Elizabeth Truss, has agreed this extension, forming a ‘bridge’ that includes iconic landscapes such as the Orton and Howgill Fells in Yorkshire and large tracts of common land in Cumbria. This announcement has been a long time coming,” said Emma Marrington, senior rural policy campaigner.


Delight at Defra announcement that Lake District and Yorkshire Dales National Park extensions have been given the green light - Campaign for National Parks

The Campaign for National Parks is delighted with the announcement from the Environment Secretary Liz Truss confirming the extensions to the Lake District and Yorkshire Dales National Parks.
Responding to the announcement, Fiona Howie, Campaign for National Parks Chief Executive, said: “This is absolutely fantastic news. Very simply, these are beautiful, inspiring and important areas of the countryside that always deserved to be part of our National Parks. They were originally excluded because of administrative reasons but now, after years of hard work by a lot of people, this is now going to be put right.”


Isle of Wight farm set to help birds and butterflies flourish - National Trust

The view from Dunsbury Farm towards the Needles (Image: National Trust / John Miller)The 165 hectare Dunsbury Farm is the third major coastal acquisition of the year as the Trust celebrates 50 years of its Neptune Coastline Campaign.

The view from Dunsbury Farm towards the Needles (Image: National Trust / John Miller)

Neighbouring the farm is the wildlife rich chalk downland of Compton, home to 33 species of butterflies including the Adonis blue, Common blue and Chalkhill blue, and an oasis of wildflowers such as the internationally rare early gentian and at least seven species of orchid.

A key vision for the farm is to help create the right farmland habitat for wildlife to flourish. The Isle of Wight is home to the UK’s only endemic population of the rare Glanville Fritillary butterfly, and Compton Bay is the traditional stronghold of that population.  The Trust will work in partnership with Butterfly Conservation to create the right conditions to safeguard the habitat of this beautiful insect. It relies on crumbling cliffs, and the downs behind the coast provide additional breeding habitat. The acquisition of Dunsbury is crucial to the future of the Glanville fritillary as the Isle of Wight coast continues to change.  Plans will also be developed to help farmlands birds, once a common sight, return to the land. These include the linnet, Dartford warbler, stonechat, meadow pipit, skylark, gold finch, bullfinch, hedge sparrow, grey partridge and yellow hammer.

Mixed farming, with livestock such as cattle and sheep, together with growing cereals such as wheat, will be important to provide diversity for wildlife. Farming will be un-intensive, with light grazing, wide field margins and stubble fields left to provide winter food for birds. The Trust hopes to achieve this by combining it with their farm at Compton, working with the farm tenant to produce a viable unit. Walkers will then be able to experience more wildlife as they use the network of footpaths across the farm.


Britain just got bigger - for some of our birds - BTO

New research, just published in the scientific journal Bird Study, shows that many of our birds have expanded their geographic range in response to climate change.

A new analysis, using data for 80 species of British birds and derived from the BTO/JNCC/RSPB Breeding Bird Survey, has shed new light on the speed and pattern of climate-induced shift in range, additionally revealing some unexpected patterns.

Nuthatch by John Harding/BTONuthatch by John Harding/BTO

The results of the study, which looked at how reference points within the breeding distributions shifted over a 15-year period, revealed that the northern margins of the breeding range had pushed even further north for the majority of the species examined. In fact, they were moving northwards at an average rate of 3.3 km per year. Interestingly, the southern margins were found to have moved much more slowly, leading to the overall distributions stretching over time. This suggests that different factors are operating at the two margins, as lead-author Dario Massimino explains: "Bird species may be physiologically limited by cold winter weather at their northern range margins, with warming potentially releasing the limiting conditions and allowing rapid range expansion. In contrast, there is increasing evidence that retreat from southern range margins is more likely to be driven by community-level interactions, including competition with other species, and these may operate at a slower rate."

The net result of these contrasting patterns is that the geographical ranges of British birds have expanded over the past 15 years.  The observed patterns of range shift are much lower than predicted from the observed 108 km northwards shift documented in mean annual temperature, suggesting that our bird species are experiencing warmer climates than before, which may have consequences for their conservation longer term.

While Britain just got a little bigger for those species that have been able to adapt to the short-term influence of a changing climate, the future looks less certain and there is a real need to carry on with long-term monitoring of Britain’s birds in order to understand the future impacts on biodiversity.

Read the paper: Dario Massimino , Alison Johnston , James W. Pearce-Higgins The geographical range of British birds expands during 15 years of warming. Bird Study.  DOI: 10.1080/00063657.2015.1089835


Scientific publications

Macreadie P. I. et al (2015) Losses and recovery of organic carbon from a seagrass ecosystem following disturbance. Royal Soc. Proceedings B. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2015.1537


Watson J. E. M. et al (2015) Bolder science needed now for protected areas. Conservation Biology. DOI: 10.1111/cobi.12645


Nimmo, D. G., Haslem, A., Radford, J. Q. Hall, M. & Bennett, A. F. (2015) Riparian tree cover enhances the resistance and stability of woodland bird communities during an extreme climatic event. Journal of Applied Ecology. DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12535


Baxter-Gilbert, J. H., Neufield, C. J. H., Litzgus, J. D. & Lesbarrères, D. (2015)  Road mortality potentially responsible for billions of pollinating insect deaths annually. Journal of Insect Conservation. DOI: 10.1007/s10841-015-9808-z


Balotari-Chiebao1, F., Niinimäki, T. & Laaksonen, T. (2015) Proximity to wind-power plants reduces the breeding success of the white-tailed eagle. Animal Conservation. DOI: 10.1111/acv.12238


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