CJS Logo & link to homepage

A round up of the top countryside, conservation, wildlife and forestry stories as chosen by the CJS Team.


Satellite data reveals Hen Harriers soaring over England – The Moorland Association

Satellite data from an innovative scheme to help boost England’s Hen Harrier population has shed new light on the activities of the birds at the centre of the initiative.

Five Hen Harriers which fledged this summer were fitted with satellite tags as part of a trial of a brood management scheme in which a brood was removed from the moors and transferred to the ‘Ritz’ of raptor rearing facilities. There they were reared in pens before being relocated to moors in the north of England where they were released.

The data from the satellite tagged harriers give conservationists an insight into the flying habits of the iconic bird, an invaluable tool as part of the government-led action plan to boost the harrier population.

One of the male Hen Harriers has travelled close to 1800 miles since it was tagged, averaging approximately 55 miles per day. The bird travelled as far west to the coast of southern Ireland, went on to  Southampton, London and then up to Wales before returning to the north.

The other birds all have all remained closer to home in the north of England.

Two of the birds’ tags have currently stopped transmitting, raising obvious concerns regarding their wellbeing. Investigations are underway to establish the whereabouts of the birds. The tags are solar powered, which can result in stretches of time where no data is transmitted, and have malfunctioned in the past with tagged birds being spotted from the ground or the transmitter suddenly retransmitting.

Amanda Anderson, Director of the Moorland Association, which is a partner in the brood management scheme trial, said: “This data provides a fascinating insight into the behaviour of these captive-reared young harriers. They appear to have integrated very well and their behaviour seems the same as totally wild tagged harriers. Most of the birds have been content to fly around the uplands and grouse moors which is territory they know and like. The adventures of the bird which travelled further afield are extraordinary and show that the species is quite capable of covering vast distances. Moorland Association members are enthusiastic participants in this scheme and extensive efforts are ongoing to trace the two birds which have stopped transmitting. The areas to search are massive over difficult moorland terrain hunting for a well camouflaged bird the size of a big crow. Whilst it is expected that at least 50% of birds will succumb to natural causes of death in the first 6 months we very much hope to find the birds alive or at least find them to establish cause of death.”


Unlocking history and heritage for millions of people affected by dementia – National Trust

Forget-me-nots at Peckover House, Cambridgeshire – this flower represents remembrance and is an emblem for people living with dementia National Trust / Clive StephensForget-me-nots at Peckover House, Cambridgeshire – this flower represents remembrance and is an emblem for people living with dementia National Trust / Clive Stephens

Two of the UK’s most popular charities have today announced an ambitious three-year project to unlock some of the nation’s best loved history and heritage for millions of people affected by dementia.

The National Trust is joining forces with Alzheimer’s Society to make all of its 500 historic and countryside sites dementia-friendly, in the first project of its kind for the Trust.

It comes as figures reveal that seven per cent (about 150,000) of National Trust supporters over the age of 65, including its volunteers, staff and members, may be living with the condition. This is in line with research from Alzheimer’s Society showing that 1 in every 14 people in the UK aged 65 and over has dementia, with someone developing the condition every three minutes, and the Society predicting those living with the disease will hit one million within three years.   

For people with dementia and their carers, historic spaces, collections and stories can prompt and stimulate discussion and connection, encourage outdoor exploration, and offer a vital connection to the world around them, with day trips recognised as one of the most likely and regular activities for people living with the condition and their carers.

In comparison to other visitor attractions, people living with dementia also view heritage sites as ‘safe’ and familiar spaces. Heritage (including visiting sites and participating in outdoors projects) has also been found to be one of the top activities of choice for those impacted by dementia, in surveys and focus groups carried out by Alzheimer’s Society.


Northumberland launches strategy to protect white-clawed crayfish – Environment Agency

Strategy will help to preserve this threatened species in the future

Ian Marshall holding two white-clawed crayfish during the strategy launch (Image credit: Sound Ideas/Environment Agency)Ian Marshall holding two white-clawed crayfish during the strategy launch (Image credit: Sound Ideas/Environment Agency)

On Friday September 27th the banks of the River Wansbeck in Northumberland played host to the launch of a strategy that aims to help protect one of the region’s best loved resident species.

The Northumberland Crayfish Conservation Steering Group has unveiled a new ‘Crayfish Area Conservation Strategy’ on the grounds of Meldon Park in Northumberland.

The strategy was developed by the Northumberland Catchment Partnership and will be delivered by the Northumberland Crayfish Conservation Steering Group. This group is made up of the following partnership organisations: the Environment Agency, Northumberland Rivers Trust, National Trust, Northumberland Wildlife Trust, Natural England, Northumbrian Water Group, Northumberland County Council, Tyne Rivers Trust, and Northumberland National Park Authority.

Northumberland is incredibly lucky to have some of the best populations of white-clawed crayfish in the country. This is the only species of freshwater crayfish native to the UK.

The species provides food for otters, fish and herons whilst also being responsible for helping to break down leaf litter and plant growth.

However, the species is at risk of being lost from the region and the strategy looks to help conserve one of the most threatened species in the UK.

The two-page strategy lays out a framework that will hopefully ensure the freshwater crayfish stays a resident in the region for years to come.
The strategy aims to improve our knowledge and better understand of the current distribution and status of freshwater crayfish in Northumberland, and improve our understanding of threats to the remaining populations, agree priorities and take appropriate actions.


The next story blasts us to the past; it’s great to hear that CJ Snail species are being returned to the wild, our original featured charity CJS adopted a Partula snail at Jersey Zoo - Durrell Wildlife until 2015.

Find out more about CJ Snail here


Two Extinct-in-the-Wild Partula snail species returned to the wild for first time in 25 years – ZSL

Two Extinct-in-the-Wild species of tropical snail have been returned to their native homeland for the first time in French Polynesia, 25 years after they were wiped out by a human-introduced invasive species.

A partula snail is returned to the wild (Zoological Society of London)A partula snail is returned to the wild (Zoological Society of London)

International conservation charity ZSL (Zoological Society of London) worked with other leading zoos and the French Polynesian Government to coordinate a conservation breeding programme – involving the progeny of the last individuals found in the Society Islands in the 1990s. 

This year, the reintroduction focused on two species, Partula rosea and Partula varia, with several thousand being carefully transported over 15,000km from Chester Zoo and ZSL Whipsnade Zoo in the UK to the French Polynesian Islands. 

Part of the world’s largest reintroduction programme, with a total of 14 different snail species and sub-species being reintroduced over the last five years – Huahine and Moorea in the Society Islands are now 4,159 snails stronger this year, thanks to further successful reintroductions over the past few weeks.

ZSL coordinates the global collaboration between 16 zoos and conservation organisations which has seen 15,000 individuals make the journey back to the Islands since its inception. A total of 10 species and sub-species of Partula were also released again this year, with snails coming from Artis Zoo in Amsterdam, Edinburgh Zoo in Scotland and ZSL London Zoo in England.


Pine martens reintroduced to England – The Wildlife Trusts

Pine martens have been reintroduced to England for the first time following near extinction. Gloucestershire Wildlife Trust has led this first formal reintroduction of a charismatic species, once a familiar feature of English woodlands – but which had been reduced to a population of fewer than 20.

Pine Marten, (c) Terry Whittaker 2020VISIONPine Marten, (c) Terry Whittaker 2020VISION

18 pine martens have now been reintroduced into the Forest of Dean – the aim is to establish a source population to support the recovery of this mammal. The last official recording of a pine marten in the Forest of Dean was 1860 and the species is believed to have been absent from the area since then.

From the same family as otters and weasels, pine martens were once common among British wildlife. Similar in size to a domestic cat, with slim bodies, brown fur and a distinctive cream ‘bib’ on their throats, they have long, bushy tails and prominent rounded ears.

Extensive hunting, however, together with the loss of the woodlands pine martens once called home, resulted in near extinction in England. Historically, they were pushed to the more remote parts of the UK, becoming Britain's second-rarest native carnivore. Eventually, their only remaining stronghold was in the north-west Highlands of Scotland.

Between August and September this year, 18 pine martens were moved from Scotland to Gloucestershire, fitted with tracking collars and released into the Forest.

Under the watchful eye of Dr. Catherine McNicol, Gloucestershire Wildlife Trust’s Conservation Project Manager, the pine martens’ activity will be closely monitored.

“Pine martens are elusive and shy animals, with their presence often only indicated by scats in the middle of forestry tracks. They only give birth to a few kits each year if breeding is even successful, so the rate of marten population recovery in the UK is low. It is hoped that their protection, alongside these reintroductions, will give them the boost they need to become resilient and thrive” comments Dr. McNicol.


Help Our Kelp – Sussex Wildlife Trust

Kelp Forest © Andy JacksonKelps are a type of brown seaweed, usually quite large and known for their ability to grow in dense aggregations, forming what is known as a ‘kelp forest’.

Kelp Forest © Andy Jackson

Along our Sussex coastline, kelp was once quite prolific, particularly along the stretch between Selsey Bill and Shoreham-by-Sea. Accounts from divers and fishers suggest that there was a dense area of kelp along the coast which over time has diminished – most likely due to disturbance by storms and the increased pressure from mechanised fishing techniques. The kelp beds were known to exist up to the 1970s and 80s, when they started to disappear; the Great Storm of 1987 would most likely have played a big role in this.

Kelp provides a number of important ecosystem services, including providing a habitat for other wildlife and a natural sea defence for the coast; it also sequesters carbon out of the atmosphere (arguably more efficiently than terrestrial forests can!). These services are indeed important in their own right, but can also be valued in terms of their natural capital, which is a way of taking stock of the resources in the natural environment which provide benefits to people.

The loss of this extent of kelp over time means these benefits and services have been diminished. Sussex has a proud tradition of restoring rivers and rewilding natural areas; the time is right to consider moving that approach into the marine environment.


New measures protect animal welfare and increase woodland cover - Defra

The Government has announced proposals on new measures to enhance the welfare of animals and increase woodland cover.

The Government has announced proposals on new measures to enhance the welfare of animals both here in the UK and abroad.

The measures include proposals to ban long journeys of live animals that are being transported for slaughter, and restrictions on the import and export of hunting trophies from endangered animals.

Alongside these measures, the Government has announced plans to create a new forest region in Northumberland to help improve our natural environment and respond to climate change.

The Government is committed to leaving the environment, and the wildlife that depend on it, in a better state for future generations. The UK already has some of the highest animal welfare standards in the world and these proposals aim to raise those standards even further.

Rt Hon Theresa Villiers MP, Secretary of State for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs said: "High standards of animal welfare are one of the hallmarks of a civilised society. We have a long tradition of protecting animals in this country, often many years before others follow. Leaving the EU allows us to take even bigger steps forward on this. These proposals will protect our animals in our homes, in agriculture, and in the wild. I have campaigned for an end to live exports for slaughter and the consultation is a further step in taking forward our manifesto commitment on this issue. This is an important victory for all those thousands of people across the country who have campaigned for tougher measures to protect animal welfare. The planting of one million trees will also be fundamental in our commitment to be the first generation to leave the natural environment in a better state than we found it. They will enhance our landscape, improve our quality of life and protect the climate for future generations."


HS2 Ltd's approach to ancient woodlands during the Oakervee Review - HS2 Ltd

As highlighted by the Secretary of State, during the Oakervee Review we must strike a sensible balance between keeping the programme on track, and recognising that some works cannot be undone.

We have assessed 11 ancient woodlands, parts of which were due to be affected by preparations to build Britain’s new high speed railway this autumn, during the period of the Oakervee review. Work will now be deferred to Autumn or Winter 2020 on 5 of these sites, and to early 2020 on 6 of the sites. We will also take measures to protect wildlife to ensure they are not affected when work begins in early 2020.

Fox Covert woodland. Credit: Phil Formby / WTMLResponse: HS2 defers all ancient woodland work until after review - Woodland Trust

We are pleased that the Government has today confirmed that work in all ancient woods will be deferred until the completion of its review of HS2, at least.

Fox Covert woodland. Credit: Phil Formby / WTML

Director of Conservation and External Affairs at the Woodland Trust Abi Bunker said: “This is the right decision but it has come very late in the day and only after much pressure from the Woodland Trust and many other organisations and individuals. We remain concerned about the fact that HS2 will still be carrying out some work at these sites. The richness of ancient woodland isn’t just about trees. It’s also the vegetation, the soils and the wildlife that makes ancient woodland a special irreplaceable habitat. Work that permanently affects these habitats like clearing vegetation and evicting bats and mammals must be stopped too while the review is completed. We will monitor the situation very closely.”

Oakervee review

It is vital that the Oakervee review is robust, independent, and evidence-based, focusing on the true environmental costs of HS2.

We will continue to put pressure on Government to ensure this is the case and that any long-term decisions about HS2 take all of the latest evidence into account.


Public to have their say on stronger protections for UK waters - Defra

Independent panel calls for views on introduction of Highly Protected Marine Areas

The public are being asked to give their views on strengthening protections for UK waters to help safeguard precious species and habitats.

As part of a four-week call for evidence which launches today (3 October 2019), communities, industry and stakeholders are being asked for their comments on putting tougher measures in place to help stop the impacts of human activity from damaging the marine environment. Views are also sought on which areas would benefit most from these extra protections.

These Highly Protected Marine Areas would be the strongest form of marine protection in the UK and would build on the 220,000 square kilometres of protection areas already in place around the UK. Known as the ‘Blue Belt’, these areas are already helping to protect species such as the short-snouted seahorse and stalked jellyfish.

The government is committed to restoring the marine environment for future generations and is a world-leader on this issue, having committed to safeguarding 50 per cent of UK and Overseas Territory waters by the end of next year. And at last week’s United Nations General Assembly, the UK created a global alliance to drive urgent action to safeguard the world’s ocean and protect its precious wildlife.

Today’s call for evidence is part of a six-month review undertaken by an independent panel of experts to look at what further protections might be needed to drive progress in the UK.


No let-up in net loss of UK’s nature - NBN on behalf of State of Nature Partnership

The UK’s wildlife continues to decline according to the State of Nature 2019 report. The latest findings show that since rigorous scientific monitoring began in the 1970s there has been a 13% decline in average abundance across wildlife studied and that the declines continue unabated.

Pasqueflower - Ben Andrew (rspb-images.com)Pasqueflower - Ben Andrew (rspb-images.com)

Following the State of Nature reports in 2013 and 2016, leading professionals from more than 70 wildlife organisations have joined with government agencies for the first time, to present the clearest picture to date of the status of our species across land and sea.

The State of Nature 2019 report also reveals that 41% of UK species studied have declined, 26% have increased and 33% shown little change since 1970, while 133 species assessed have already been lost from our shores since 1500.

Butterflies and moths have been particularly hard hit with numbers of butterflies down by 17% and moths down by 25%. The numbers of species, such as the High Brown Fritillary and Grayling, that require more specialised habitats have declined by more than three quarters.

The UK’s mammals also fare badly with greater than 26% of species at risk of disappearing altogether. The Wild Cat and Greater Mouse-eared Bat are among those species teetering on the edge of disappearing.

Much is known about the causes of decline and about some of the ways in which we could reduce impacts and help struggling species. The evidence from the last 50 years shows that significant and ongoing changes in the way we manage our land for agriculture, and the ongoing effects of climate change are having the biggest impacts on nature.

Hedgehog - David Woodfall (rspb-images.com)Pollution is also a major issue. Whilst emissions of many pollutants have been reduced dramatically in recent decades, pollution continues to have a severe impact on the UK’s sensitive habitats and freshwaters, and new pollutant threats are continuing to emerge. 

Hedgehog - David Woodfall (rspb-images.com)

Daniel Hayhow, lead author on the report, said:  “We know more about the UK’s wildlife than any other country on the planet, and what it is telling us should make us sit up and listen. We need to respond more urgently across the board if we are to put nature back where it belongs. Governments, conservation groups and individuals must continue to work together to help restore our land and sea for wildlife and people in a way that is both ambitious and inspiring for future generations.  In this report we have drawn on the best available data on the UK’s biodiversity, produced by partnerships between conservation NGOs, research institutes, UK and national governments, and thousands of dedicated volunteers. It’s through working together that we can help nature recover but the battle must intensify.” 


The Untold Story of Working Conservationists - Game and Wildlife Conservation Trust

The latest State of Nature report rightly grabs the headlines with a vital assessment of the loss of British wildlife, but there is an “Untold Story” of private land managers’ spectacular success in reversing biodiversity declines at a local level. 

Their stories are important because 75% of the country is farmed and so farmers represent potentially the largest conservation force in the country. Now is the time to mobilise that force with the right support and encouragement. 

A new collection of case studies published by the Game & Wildlife Conservation Trust shows why private land managers are uniquely placed to provide a solution to biodiversity loss in the UK.

These unsung “Working Conservationists” are bucking the national trends. For example, in Suffolk red-listed turtle doves are thriving on Graham Denny’s 200-acre family farm and thanks to his dedication to feeding all year round he has ringed an incredible 32,000 songbirds on the farm, many of which are threatened species. 

Rural Television presenter and farmer Adam Henson, who wrote the foreword to the collection, said: “These uplifting stories of increasing wildlife remind us of the real opportunity for British farmers to lead the world in producing the food and environmental goods we urgently need.”

Tony Juniper, Chair of Natural England, which provides conservation advice to land managers said: “Enlightened stewards of the land, such as those in GWCT’s new collection of case studies, are increasingly proving that they can be at the heart of restoring nature while running productive and profitable businesses. Encouraging land managers to adopt such approaches is an important part of the new Environmental Land Management scheme that Natural England is helping to shape, so that farmers can be properly rewarded for providing public goods alongside first-class food production.”

GWCT Chief executive Teresa Dent CBE added: “Given the right kind of funding, advice and encouragement and by working together in Farmer Clusters, private land managers have proved they can boost biodiversity in the wider working countryside. It’s time for this untold story of conservation success to become a central narrative of British wildlife restoration.” 

Purchase a copy of the Working conservations publication here.


Parks for London has published the Good Parks for London Report 2019 – Parks and health.

This year the report takes a close look at how London’s parks* can improve the health and well-being of London’s residents. The report foreword is written by Julie Billett, Chair of the London Association of Directors of Public Health. Good Parks for London 2019 considers the approach that London Boroughs are taking towards their parks*, evaluating them against ten criteria: public satisfaction, awards for quality, health and wellbeing, sustainability, events, supporting nature, skills development, community partnerships, collaboration and strategic planning.

This report comes at a time of ongoing political turmoil over Brexit, continued uncertainty over funding for parks services and growing concerns about the environment and climate change.

This year the London Borough of Southwark has topped the league table for the overall best parks service, demonstrating the fantastic work that they are doing to promote, enhance and protect their parks. They scored exceptionally well in the areas of public satisfaction; provision of health, fitness and wellbeing facilities and activities; and in developing the skills of their parks staff by offering apprenticeships and training & development for staff at every level.

Tony Leach, CEO of Parks for London said: ‘We hope this year’s report will motivate decision makers to protect future parks budgets and stimulate more Boroughs and other organisations to work together to make parks healthier so that Londoners can benefit from having not just good parks, but great ones.’’

The report is available to download here.

Read the full press release (PDF)


Woodland Trust welcomes doubling of funding for new woodland creation in Wales 

The Woodland Trust (Coed Cadw), the UK’s largest woodland conservation charity has welcomed the doubling of the funds available for new woodland creation in Wales and is encouraging farmers to take up this opportunity. 

The Welsh Government has doubled the funding for current window of Glastir Woodland Creation.The Welsh Government has doubled the funding for current window of Glastir Woodland Creation.

Credit: Eric Porter/WTML

Sharon Thomas, the Woodland Trust’s woodland outreach manager for Wales says: “This is a great opportunity for farmers in Wales. I strongly welcome the increase in funding and hope that these grants can be delivered without unnecessary bureaucracy.

"Native trees can offer us so many benefits, reducing flood risk, improving water quality, improving biosecurity and providing superb habitats for wildlife, as well as a renewable source of valuable timber. At a time when, sadly, there is huge uncertainty around farming in Wales, the Glastir Woodland Creation scheme offers a great opportunity to farmers and other landowners to make use of all of their land in ways that are sustainable both economically and environmentally. 


Exmoor National Park Declares Climate Emergency

Exmoor National Park Authority Members this week declared a climate emergency and agreed to work towards being a carbon neutral Authority by 2030, subject to a detailed action plan now being drawn up. 

Members also agreed to sign up to the Devon Climate Declaration, alongside 25 other organisations, and to join forces with both Devon and Somerset County Councils to produce carbon plans covering the National Park to meet or exceed Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) targets.

The report to Members noted the 30% reduction in carbon emissions that Exmoor National Park Authority had already made since it started monitoring its carbon footprint across all its corporate assets in 2008. The measures taken include action to improve energy efficiency within Authority owned buildings and install renewable energy along with a scheme to facilitate installation of 73 new renewable energy systems in local communities, farms and houses across Exmoor.

The Authority has also taken steps to respond through management of its own estate, particularly the woodlands which are managed in-house, and collaboration with other foresters and land owners to support positive woodland planting and management. 


Greater horseshoe bat rediscovered in Kent - Bat Conservation Trust

We are excited to announce that the rare greater horseshoe bat has recently been recorded in Kent for the first time in over 100 years. The last known record of this species in Kent dates from 1904.

The first record of this species in Kent for 115 years was made by Laragh Smyth and Emily Cummins of Lloyd Bore Ltd, a Kent-based ecological consultancy, in May 2019 during a commercial bat activity survey visit. A single pass by this bat was recorded at a location on the East Kent coast.

Greater horseshoe bat in flight (Photo Credit: © Dale Sutton/www.bats.org.uk)Greater horseshoe bat in flight (Photo Credit: © Dale Sutton/www.bats.org.uk)

Bakerwell Limited also recorded greater horseshoe bat passes during a bat survey using static detectors at the end of June 2019, within a mile of the initial record. These records were identified by Angela Weaving and confirmed by Donna Popplewell and Fiona Baker. Six passes were recorded over a period of one minute on a single date, further confirming the return of this species to Kent.

Due to the unexpected nature of these records, the sound recordings have been verified, and the species identity confirmed, by Peter Scrimshaw of the Kent Bat Group and by national bat experts Sandie Sowler and Richard Crompton.

The reasons for the presence of this species in Kent are currently unknown. It is possible that an individual bat was blown off course or has travelled over from France, or that a bat has dispersed across the UK, from strongholds in the west of England or Wales. It is also possible that the species is now able to expand its range into Kent due to climatic changes. The habitats in the area that the recordings were made are not dissimilar to those in its western strongholds, prompting speculation that the records could represent more than just an itinerant bat.

Lloyd Bore and Bakerwell will be discussing further research efforts with the Kent Bat Group and Bat Conservation Trust, to ascertain whether this species is now resident in Kent.


Study: Do nature documentaries make a difference? - University College Cork

Nature documentaries raise species awareness and promote pro-conservation behaviours, but don't lead to donations to conservation charities, a new Irish study has revealed.

For the study, published in the journal Conservation Letters, researchers examined BBC’s popular, six-episode documentary series, Planet Earth II (2016), narrated by David Attenborough. 

The objective was to track how nature documentaries change attitudes towards nature by measuring audience reactions and engagement on social media. 

“Criticism of nature documentaries often highlights that they are misleading, by showing pristine views of nature and portraying environmental problems. We wondered if it would be possible to answer this question using big data," said co-author, Dr Darío Fernández-Bellon of the School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences and the Environmental Research Institute in University College Cork (UCC). 

Using Planet Earth II as a case study, the researchers found that, in line with criticism, the show allocated very little time to conservation topics, and those that were mentioned generated little reaction in audiences. 

"But we did find that the show generated active interest in the species it portrayed, and that in some cases this interest lasted up to six months after the initial broadcast," Dr Fernández-Bellon added. 

The research examined how Planet Earth II portrayed nature, from what species appeared in the show and how much screen time was dedicated to each, to what group of animals they belonged to. They subsequently searched Twitter for 35,000 tweets with the hashtag #PlanetEarth2, to see if audiences reacted more to some species than others. 

By analysing the number of visits to Wikipedia pages of each species, they assessed whether audiences searched for further information on the species featured in the show. Finally, they examined if donations to two nature charities coincided with the broadcast of the show. 

Read the paper: Fernández-Bellon, D, Kane, A. Natural history films raise species awareness—A big data approach. Conservation Letters. 2019;e12678. Doi: 10.1111/conl.12678 (open access)


Scientific Publication

 Callaghan Corey T., Poore Alistair G. B., Major Richard E., Rowley Jodi J. L. and Cornwell William K. Optimizing future biodiversity sampling by citizen scientists. 286 Proc. R. Soc. B  Doi: 10.1098/rspb.2019.1487 (Open Access)


CJS is not responsible for content of external sites.  Details believed correct but given without prejudice.

Disclaimer: the views expressed in these news pages do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of CJS.