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A round up of the top countryside, conservation, wildlife and forestry stories as chosen by the CJS Team.


Rural communities left behind by LEPs - CPRE

Survey shows Local Enterprise Partnerships (LEPs) neglect rural areas, have a negative impact on the countryside, and need to reach out more to the public

credit: CPREA survey published today (Monday 25 June) by the Campaign to Protect Rural England (CPRE) shows that Local Enterprise Partnerships (LEPs) are perceived, by almost two-thirds (60%) of respondents, as having a negative impact on issues affecting the countryside. 

Image: CPRE

CPRE asked its local groups about LEP activity regarding issues affecting rural communities and the countryside. These business-led partnerships between the private and public sector are designed to support and promote growth in their areas. However, the research found that LEPs may be entrenching inequalities within and between English regions rather than removing them, with investment three times more likely in an already economically buoyant area than one in social need.

The results demonstrate that many LEPs are failing rural communities by ignoring their economic potential, as well as social and environmental needs. Despite having a key responsibility in administering the Rural Development Programme for England, only 21% of LEPs featured in the survey were perceived as aiding the development of affordable rural housing and just 14% work to address or improve rural transport. This lack of housing and infrastructure for those who work for and support rural businesses could hinder the growth of those economies.

The absence of investment in rural economies, which provide 13% of England’s employment, exacerbates issues facing much of the country, such as the need for more regeneration, housing, sustainable transport, broadband connectivity and support for new entrants into farming. It contributes to a growing inequality, which leaves many rural areas behind economically and socially. 


€8.3m boost to protect precious peatlands and wetlands in Ireland and Scotland - Ulster Wildlife Trust

An €8.3m EU funded environmental project, which will help to restore natural habitats and protect endangered species across a range of project sites throughout Northern Ireland, Ireland and Scotland is now underway. Ulster Wildlife is one of the partners in the new Collaborative Action for the Natura Network (CANN), which is funded by the EU‟s INTERREG VA Programme, managed by the Special EU Programmes Body.

Curran Bog, near Bellaghy – a raised bog being targeted through CANN (Ulster Wildlife Trust)Curran Bog, near Bellaghy – a raised bog being targeted through CANN (Ulster Wildlife Trust)

The launch event was held in Co. Monaghan on Tuesday 12 June, and was attended by representatives from the project's major funding bodies and partners.

The CANN Project Team, a team of leading scientists, researchers, local authorities, charities and community organisations, is led by Newry, Mourne and Down District Council. Ulster Wildlife is one of the CANN partner organisations who will carry out actions to help improve the condition of valuable habitats, to help protect vital species, and to work with local people and communities to manage these unique peatland and wetland landscapes and iconic species.

Welcoming the funding, Gina McIntyre, CEO of the Special EU Programmes Body, which manages the INTERREG VA Programme said: “The EU is committed to the protection of our shared natural environment across Europe as demonstrated through its Birds and Habitats Directives. Under the current INTERREG VA Programme approximately €84 million has been allocated to support a wide-range of cross-border environmental protection projects. This project, CANN will serve to further this European environmental policy by improving the conservation status of 3,150 hectares of natural habitats found across Northern Ireland, the Border Region of Ireland and Western Scotland.”

Overall, the project will focus on seven protected habitats, as well as seven priority species including birds such as the hen harrier, golden plover and red grouse, insects such as the marsh fritillary butterfly, and freshwater species such as white-clawed crayfish.


HS2 launches plans for unprecedented ‘green corridor’ stretching alongside the railway - High Speed 2 (HS2) Ltd  

Animation depicting a green bridge along the HS2 route (HS2)HS2 set out plans to deliver a ‘green corridor’ consisting of new wildlife habitats, native woodlands and community spaces to help integrate the new line into its surrounding landscape and environment.

Animation depicting a green bridge along the HS2 route (HS2)

The scale of planned works will be largest ever undertaken by an infrastructure project in the UK, with a network of environmental projects stretching from London to the North of England.

Along the Phase One route, which covers 216km from London to the West Midlands, the green corridor will encompass:

  • 7 million new trees and shrubs, including over 40 native species, specific to each location. The new native woodlands will cover over 9 square kilometres of land.
  • Over 33 square kilometres of new and existing wildlife habitat – equating to an area the size of 4,600 football pitches. That’s an increase of around 30% compared to what’s there now.
  • Tailor-made homes for wildlife, ranging from bat houses to 226 new ponds for great crested newts and other amphibians.
  • Earthworks and landscaping which will re-use around 90% of the material excavated during construction.
  • The potential to support community projects and develop amenity spaces such as access routes, public parks, open spaces and nature reserves.

Work on the pioneering initiative is expected to set new standards for how Britain and the rest of Europe builds the next generation of major infrastructure projects.


Our response to HS2 Ltd's plans for a 'green corridor' stretching alongside the railway – National Trust

HS2 green corridor nothing more than greenwash nonsense – Woodland Trust


UK urban forest can store as much carbon as tropical rainforests – University College London

Large Tree, Highgate Cemetery (Credit: UCL)Pockets of urban forest can contain as much carbon as tropical rainforests, according to new research led by UCL. 

Large Tree, Highgate Cemetery (Credit: UCL)

Protecting and planting urban forests is central to building liveable and sustainable cities in a future where global populations are set to become increasingly urbanised. This research sheds new light on the value of urban trees for their potential to store carbon and mitigate climate change.

The new study, published in Carbon Balance and Management, used publicly-available airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data collected by the UK Environment Agency, combined with ground-based LiDAR measurements, to generate a map of carbon stored in an estimated 85,000 trees across the London Borough of Camden.

The UCL team found that areas such as Hampstead Heath store up to 178 tonnes of carbon per ha, in comparison to the median value for tropical rainforests of 190 tonnes of carbon per ha. 

More evidence to push for your Council to quantify the benefits of urban trees using i-Tree Eco. Find out more in the Forest Research article in May’s CJS Focus on Greenspace at https://c-js.co.uk/2J9eFaL


Government sets out next steps for Heathrow expansion – Department for Transport

MPs decisively backed plans for a new north-west runway at the airport – in a significant move for a global Britain.

In the House of Commons last night, MPs voted in favour of the Airports National Policy Statement (NPS) by 415 votes to 119.

Construction on a third runway at Heathrow could start within 3 years following the historic vote in Parliament yesterday.

Transport Secretary Chris Grayling today (26 June 2018) formally designated the Airports NPS, paving the way for Heathrow to now submit a formal planning application.

It triggers the next step in a process that could see building work start in 2021 and the runway operational by 2026.

Transport Secretary Chris Grayling said: “This marks a critical step towards ensuring future generations have the international connections we need, as well as strengthening the links between all parts of the UK and our global hub. I have always been clear that this issue goes beyond party politics, and this result demonstrates the clear desire to get on with delivering this vital scheme. There is still much to be done, including defending this decision against the potential legal challenges, but we are absolutely committed to working closely with local communities and ensuring Heathrow stick to their promises on addressing the local and environmental impacts of expansion.”


More woodland management needed to help save dormice – University of Exeter

Managing woodlands to a greater extent could help stop the decline of Britain’s dormice, new research suggests.

More woodland management needed to help save dormice (Photo credit Pat Morris)More woodland management needed to help save dormice (Photo credit Pat Morris)

Dormouse numbers are falling in Britain – down by 72% in just over 20 years – and the scientists say this could reflect changes in climate and the composition and structure of woodland habitats.

The findings, from two new studies led by the University of Exeter, show dormice favour woodland with varied heights and areas of regrowth, including species such as hazel and yew that provide the flowers, fruits and nuts they enjoy.

The researchers call for a return to active woodland management, which can include coppicing, glade creation and small-scale tree felling, to create a “mosaic” of trees of different ages and sizes, especially areas of new growth and medium-height trees.

Dormouse numbers are higher in woodlands with more varied tree heights and scrubby areas, and they prefer to use areas of woodland edge, and dense trees and shrubs, when they move around at night. Habitats that we found to be good for dormice have been in decline,” said lead author Dr Cecily Goodwin, of the Environment and Sustainability Institute on the University of Exeter’s Penryn Campus in Cornwall. “Dormouse conservation would benefit from more broadleaf woodland in the landscape and more diverse woodland structure – ranging from new growth and scrub to mid-height woodland to old trees."

Professor Robbie McDonald, who directed the research, said ““There has been a decline of woodland management that creates diverse forests, and an increase in large stands of mature, single-age trees, which are not such good habitats for dormice or various other declining woodland species, such as some birds and butterflies.”


Raising the bar: improving nature in National Parks – Campaign for National Parks

(image: Campaign for National Parks)A new report by Campaign for National Parks, published today, calls for a fundamentally new approach to nature conservation in our National Parks. Raising the bar: improving nature in our National Parks argues that a change is urgently needed to enable the Parks to halt, and reverse the loss in wildlife seen across England and Wales.

Wildlife is a critical part of the beauty of the National Parks and the purposes for which the sites are designated. However the report highlights that the condition of nature in our National Parks is not good enough. Nearly 75% of Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs) in the English National Parks are in an ‘unfavourable condition’. This compares to 61.3% of the total SSSIs in England. 

(image: Campaign for National Parks)

In England’s National Parks 88.5% of SSSIs in the North York Moors, 84.7% in Exmoor and 83.9% of the Peak District’s SSSIs are in an unfavourable condition. And wildlife continues to decline across Wales.

Television presenter, naturalist and vice president of Campaign for National Parks, Iolo Williams said: “The status quo isn’t good enough. National Parks need to urgently pull their socks up and turn around the unacceptable loss of nature from the Parks. We need landscapes that are alive with people and wildlife, buzzing with invertebrates and busy with bird life. Across the countryside we are facing a dire ecological decline, as special protected landscapes National Parks must set an example and lead the way forward.”

National Parks are important for wildlife. 56% of the New Forest National Park is designated of international value for nature conservation, for example, and Snowdonia National Park contains 107 SSSIs, covering around 30% of the Park. But if we are to buck the national trends of wildlife decline, they could and should be doing better.

Many species found in the 13 National Parks, including red squirrels, curlew and heath fritillary butterflies, are struggling for survival in England and Wales.

The report recommends that the Westminster and Welsh Governments work with the National Park Authorities to pilot a fundamentally different approach to nature conservation. Such a change would move away from the intense protection and management of individual sites for specific species and instead focus on a landscape scale approach that prioritises the re-establishment of natural, ecological processes.

Read the full report here  


The 2017 Polli:Nation results are in! - OPAL

Scientists at Butterfly Conservation and the wider Polli:Nation team have been busy little bees working hard to analyse and interpret the results that you collected from the first two years of the Polli:Nation Survey.

The main finding is that small changes that you have made to your local outdoor spaces have had a significant positive impact on pollinators!

Check out the full report and/or the highlight document where you can discover which school topped the charts, whether honeybees remain the most frequently recorded pollinator and how you can help with next steps. 


Bring back the colour to East Ridings’ roads – RSPB

The RSPB wants to bring back the colour to the roadsides of East Riding by returning verges to their former glory.

Road verges in the UK are home to around 700 species of wildflower, many of which are important for a range of birds and insects. But poor management of verges in recent years means that many of these flowers are vanishing, together with much of the wildlife that depends on them.

In East Riding, a lot of the verges are designated as nature reserves and East Riding of Yorkshire County Council (ERYCC) managed them specifically for the benefit of plants and wildlife. However, this has largely stopped in recent years owing to funding cuts.

RSPB volunteers Gayna Wallis and Gill Reid surveyed 22 miles (35km) of verges in East Riding and found that a lot of them were in poor condition. This was either the result of too much cutting, which has prevented plants from flowering and setting seed or not enough cutting, which has resulted in the dominance of only a few species like cow parsley.   

The pair did find some verges with a good variety of plants such as orchids, cranesbills and lady’s bedstraw but these still need to be cared for in a different way to secure their long-term future.


Apply the lessons of the past decade, or risk a poor deal for the public in the next - Committee on Climate Change

Ten years after the Climate Change Act came into force, the Committee on Climate Change (CCC) says the Government must learn the lessons of the last decade if it is to meet legally-binding targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the 2020s and 2030s. Unless action is taken now, the public faces an unnecessarily expensive deal to make the shift to a low-carbon economy.

Scientific evidence of a changing climate continues to mount. Recent observations have catalogued evolving changes to the climate in the UK and around the world, highlighting the urgent need for further measures to reduce harmful emissions.

Overall, UK emissions are down 43% compared to the 1990 baseline while the economy has grown significantly over the same period.

Since 2008, the UK has seen a rapid reduction in emissions in the electricity sector, but this achievement masks a marked failure to decarbonise other sectors, including transport, agriculture and buildings. In the last five years, emissions reductions in these areas have stalled. As a result, the UK is not on course to meet the fourth (2023-2027) or fifth (2028-2032) carbon budgets. Nor will it be on course unless risks to the delivery of existing policies are reduced significantly and until Government brings forward effective new policies to deliver commitments beyond the achievements in electricity generation and waste.

Read the reportReducing UK emissions – 2018 Progress Report to Parliament

Reaction: Govt action to cut carbon slammed as climate advisor warns of missed targets - Friends of the Earth

Delaying action to slash emissions will increase human and financial costs

Government plans for slashing carbon emissions have been slammed today by Friends of the Earth after the Committee on Climate Change (CCC) warned that the UK isn’t on course for meeting its climate targets.

Reacting to today’s report Oliver Hayes, climate campaigner at Friends of the Earth, said: “This report highlights the government’s dangerously inadequate approach to tackling climate change. Confirmation that the UK is off course for meeting its climate targets makes this week’s decisions to expand Heathrow and scrap the tidal lagoon at Swansea Bay even less justifiable. Lives and livelihoods are already being lost due to devastating climate breakdown. The climate committee is clear that urgent action is not only essential, but also low-cost. Delaying action will increase the human and financial costs for everyone. There are huge opportunities here, but the government is dropping the ball.”


Mammals on Roads 2018 - People's Trust for Endangered Species

Mammals on roads 2018 photo credit: Emily JonesThe drive to survey Britain’s mammals: roadkill sightings can help conservation efforts

This summer we are calling on the public to record sightings of mammals, dead or alive, whilst driving along Britain’s road network as part of our Mammals on Roads 2018 survey. The information will help to spot changing trends in populations and identify where conservation action is needed most.

Mammals on roads 2018 photo credit: Emily Jones

According to a recent report by the Mammal Society, compiled with our help, one in five wild mammal species in Britain is at risk of extinction. But getting an idea of the size of populations and how numbers are changing remains difficult.

David Wembridge, our Surveys Officer explains: “At the moment, a lot of what we know is still a ‘best guess’ and what we really need are good records of mammals and of all sorts of species, more generally. Better estimates of numbers will help us understand our wildlife and the ‘natural health’ of the nation.”

This year, the survey runs from Sunday 1st July through to Sunday 30th September and participants in this citizen science project can take part either online or via an app on a smart phone or tablet.


Wildlife devastated in moorland inferno - Lancashire Wildlife Trust

The huge fire that is ravaging Saddleworth Moor will have dire consequences for wildlife and will mean major habitat work in future years.  Burning peat by Alan WrightIt is not the only fire that we have had this year, there have been problems at Rivington and over the past decade Heysham Moss has been a target for arsonists.

Burning peat by Alan Wright

Director of Conservation at the Wildlife Trust for Lancashire, Manchester and North Merseyside Tim Mitcham said: “The heat generated by the fires is devastating to the fragile upland moorland. Only the most mobile of animals escape and of course we are in peak breeding period for many - from curlew to ant. These animals are on the moors because they like the conditions they find there and ultimately depend upon the plants, many species depend upon specialist moorland plants like cotton-grass and heather. It will have devastating consequences on birds like the curlew which are feeding chicks at the moment. Meadow pipit also nest in tussocks of grass, nests and chicks will not have survived a fire like this. Mammals like the field vole will have perished. They will try to dig deep into the ground to escape the fire but then they will be starved of oxygen. This means predators like short-eared owl, kestrel and merlin will have no food on the burned-out moorland.”

Campaigns Manager Alan Wright said: “These fires have devastating consequences on our moorland wildlife. The moors are a brilliant wilderness for wildlife to flourish and for millions of people to enjoy. “If this fire was started by arsonists or just the selfish, clumsy actions of a couple of people then they will have caused damage that will affect our region for years to come. People know that the hot, dry summer will leave the moors vulnerable to fire, but they should think about the damage they are causing by their actions, whether deliberate or not. We are asking visitors to the moors, and other vulnerable areas, to take care and think of the wildlife.”


NSA warns of link between upland rewilding and devastating wildfires - National Sheep Association

With devastating scenes of wildfires raging over Saddleworth Moor across the news this week the National Sheep Association (NSA) is warning of the increased risk of similar disasters if proposals to rewild many of the UK’s upland areas are pursued. 

Combined risk factors of predicted climate change and weather patterns with removal of grazing animals that have in the past protected uplands from out of control fires by creating natural firebreaks could mean the fires causing distress amongst people living and working in the area could become more widespread.

NSA Chief Executive Phil Stocker comments: “Wildfires are becoming more common across the UK, in part due to a loss of grazing animals and an increase in high volumes of dry vegetation. The result is causing immense environmental damage including the loss of peat and release of carbon into the atmosphere, the destruction of mammals and young birds, the potential loss of domesticated livestock and of course, a risk to human health. The grazed nature of most of our uplands has, in the past, protected us from out of control fires, meaning that when fires occur as they inevitably will, they are short lived and relatively easy to get under control. This is a practical example of how sheep farming has an integral relationship with our planet and connects our landscape, our people and our wildlife and environment through natural and traditional land management whilst also producing food and fibre from plants and regions that would not otherwise feed and clothe us.”


North York Moors on fire alert - NYMNPA

Ranger with fire risk sign (Image: NYMNPA)Dry conditions over recent weeks have forced the North York Moors National Park Authority to announce a fire alert.

Staff from the Authority have been putting fire risk warning signs up on moorland sites this week, advising people how they can help to reduce the risk. The signs will remain in place until the fire risk passes.

The key message from the Park’s Rangers is to enjoy the Park but please be extra careful.

The sunny weather is set to continue over the weekend and this, coupled with a lack of rain and very dry ground vegetation such as heather and bracken, has prompted the decision by the Authority to put the North York Moors on fire alert.

There are similar alerts being issued across the country

Operation FireWatch underway in the Peak District National Park

Dry weather sparks fire concern in Yorkshire Dales National Park

And other worrying incidents being reported:

Fire in the Open Norwood (Harrogate) - North Yorkshire Fire and Rescue

Sparks from bullets start grassland blazes at Otterburn firing range in Northumberland - Ministry of Defence on SkyNews


Heathland area the size of 70 football pitches conserved - South Downs National Park Authority

heathland (Image: SDNPA)An area of heathland the size of 70 football pitches (50 ha) has been conserved over the past year through the Heathlands Reunited project –  a partnership of 11 organisations in the South Downs National Park working together to create bigger, better, more joined up heathlands. The five-year project which started in 2016 covers 34 heathland sites and is supported by a £1.44 million from the Heritage Lottery Fund.

(image: SDNPA)

Heathland conservation includes scrub removal and creating patches of bare ground needed by many rare amphibians and reptiles found on the heath. Without conservation management heathlands would disappear along with the internationally rare species that rely on them.

The 50 ha of heathland includes:

  • The equivalent of 14 football pitches (10ha) of scrub cleared
  • Just under 10 football pitches (7ha) of non-native invasive species removed
  • Just under 33 football pitches (23.5Ha) of bracken treated
  • 14 football pitches (10Ha) worth of linking habitat created

Other successes during the year included:

  • Commissioning artist Graeme Mitcheson to use volunteers and local community research to develop seven works telling the stories of seven different heaths
  • Take the lead –our responsible dog ownership campaign which reached just under half a million people and recruited five new dog ambassadors for the project area.


The only way is pup for first-ever Thames seal breeding survey - Zoological Society of London

Marine biologists will be keeping their eyes peeled for new arrivals as the first-ever survey of seal pups in the Thames Estuary ‘swims’ into action via sea, land and air this coming weekend. 

Led by international conservation charity ZSL (Zoological Society of London), this year’s study – running from 1-4 July – will for the first time count seal pup numbers in key colonies along the Kent and Essex coasts, shedding further light on the importance of this critical habitat for the UK’s native harbour seals (Phoca vitulina).

A seal from the 2018 seal survey (image: ZSL)A seal from the 2018 seal survey (image: ZSL) 

Commenting on this year’s Thames seal survey, ZSL conservation biologist Thea Cox said: “The outer Thames Estuary has long been known as an important habitat for adult harbour seals – now, our first survey specifically of pupping in the outer Thames Estuary will hopefully also show how vital this habitat is as a breeding habitat for these charismatic marine mammals. Last year, we estimated populations of 1,104 harbour seals and 2,406 grey seals across the Estuary – an increase of 14% and 19% respectively against 2016’s figures. These positive findings support the idea that today’s Thames is not the same polluted, biologically dead ‘open sewer’ it was in the 1950s, but is in fact thriving with wildlife once again. There’s still a lot of work to do, however, so launching our first-ever pupping count this year should yield further invaluable evidence to support the ongoing renaissance of London’s river as a living, breathing ecosystem.”

Take part in more citizen science projects and report your sightings, find out more here.


Marine protected areas often expensive and misplaced - University of Queensland

Many marine protected areas are often unnecessarily expensive and located in the wrong places, an international study has shown.

The University of Queensland was part of research which found protected areas missed many unique ecosystems, and have a greater impact on fisheries than necessary.

Kelp forest (image: Oliver Dodd, via University of Queensland)A collaboration with the University of Hamburg, Wildlife Conservation Society and The Nature Conservancy assessed the efficiency of marine protected areas, which now cover 16 per cent of national waters around the world.

Kelp forest (image: Oliver Dodd, via University of Queensland)

UQ’s School of Biological Sciences researcher Professor Hugh Possingham said international marine preservation targets are falling short.

“International conservation targets such as the United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goals call for protection of at least 10 per cent of all the world’s oceans and all marine ecosystems,” he said.  “Despite a tenfold increase in marine protected areas since the year 2000 – a growth of 21 million square kilometres – half of all marine ecosystems still fall short of the target, with 10 ecosystems entirely unprotected.”

Access the paper: Jantke K, Jones KR, Allan JR, Chauvenet ALM, Watson JEM, Possingham HP. Poor ecological representation by an expensive reserve system: evaluating 35 years of marine protected area expansion. Conservation Letters. 2018;e12584. doi: 10.1111/conl.12584


2018 Park Protector Award searches for its' next winner! - Campaign for National Parks

Projects contributing to our beautiful National Parks could receive a £2,000 boost in recognition of their work thanks to the Campaign for National Parks’ Park Protector Award.

The Award, sponsored by Ramblers Holidays Charitable Trust, celebrates the work being done to protect and improve National Parks across England and Wales with the winner receiving a £2,000 bursary and a runner up receiving £500.

Nominations are being invited until Tuesday 31 July. Nominated projects must be seeking to conserve or enhance the biodiversity or a heritage site, improve access to the Parks, or protect an area in a National Park.

Fiona Howie, chief executive of Campaign for National Parks, said: “The Park Protector Award is a fantastic opportunity to celebrate amazing projects happening across the English and Welsh National Parks. The Ramblers Holiday Charitable Trust and Campaign for National Parks urge you to submit a nomination if you know of or are involved in a project doing important work.”

Click here for application form 


Scientific Publications 

Reif J, Vermouzek Z. Collapse of farmland bird populations in an Eastern European country following its EU accession. Conservation Letters. 2018;e12585. doi: 10.1111/conl.12585


Bianchi, C. N. et al (2018) The park never born: Outcome of a quarter of a century of inaction on the sea - floor integrity of a proposed but not established Marine Protected Area. Aquatic Conservation. doi.org/10.1002/aqc.2918


Denerley, C. , Redpath, S. M., Wal, R. , Newson, S. E., Chapman, J. W. and Wilson, J. D. (2018), Breeding ground correlates of the distribution and decline of the Common Cuckoo Cuculus canorus at two spatial scales. Ibis. . doi:10.1111/ibi.12612 


Isaac, N. J., et al (2018), Defining and delivering resilient ecological networks: nature conservation in England. J Appl Ecol. Accepted Author Manuscript. . doi:10.1111/1365-2664.13196


Ash E. Samuelson, Richard J. Gill, Mark J. F. Brown, Ellouise Leadbeater Lower bumblebee colony reproductive success in agricultural compared with urban environments Proc. R. Soc. B 2018 285 20180807; DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2018.0807. 


Nathan R. Senner, Maria Stager, Mo A. Verhoeven, Zachary A. Cheviron, Theunis Piersma, Willem Bouten High-altitude shorebird migration in the absence of topographical barriers: avoiding high air temperatures and searching for profitable winds Proc. R. Soc. B 2018 285 20180569; DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2018.0569.


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