CJS Logo & link to homepage

A round up of the top countryside, conservation, wildlife and forestry stories as chosen by the CJS Team.


Plantlife launch new five year strategy - Plantlife

For over 25 years, Plantlife has had a single ideal; to save and celebrate wild plants, flowers and fungi.

Now, as fresh uncertainties and challenges emerge about the future of our natural environment, Plantlife has launched a new strategy that sets out the charity's plans for the next five years.

The plan - available as a downloadable document - sets out to achieve a vision of wild plants that are:

  • Thriving: threatened species face a more secure future whilst common plants stay abundant and are enjoyed
  • Valued: the benefits that wild plants bring to all our lives are understood
  • Celebrated: our wild flora and fungi are appreciated for their beauty and cultural significance

"We want to leave a lasting legacy" says Marian Spain, Plantlife's Chief Executive Officer. "A world so rich in flowers that children could pick a bunch without causing harm" "That needs us to do two things: to bring wild plants and flowers back in abundance, and help people young and old to understand and enjoy them. This strategy sets out how we plan to do that over the next five years.”

Download strategy document


The Wildlife Trusts welcome Government decision to guarantee funding for wildlife-friendly farming schemes

Brown hare on farmland track (Image: © Amy Lewis via Wildlife Trusts)Brown hare on farmland track (Image: © Amy Lewis via Wildlife Trusts)

The Wildlife Trusts welcome the Treasury's commitment today to fund crucial UK wildlife-friendly farming and land management schemes which currently rely on EU funding through the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP).

The Treasury's decision to guarantee existing and new agri-environmental schemes for their lifetime after the vote to leave the European Union, and with it the CAP, will bring much-needed confidence to farmers who are already involved in or are thinking about taking part in vital schemes to help farmland wildlife.  We also welcome the decision to guarantee the Basic Payment Scheme, Horizon 2020 and LIFE funding to 2020.
The Wildlife Trusts look forward to supporting the Government in developing a new policy to replace CAP in the coming months and years.

Stephen Trotter, Director for England of The Wildlife Trusts, recently set out what we would like to see in a new Integrated Environment Policy, which could replace the Common Agricultural Policy after 2020. This could enable a fresh approach to farming, to allow nature's recovery.


Success for Come Outside! - Natural Resources Wales

Nearly 3,500 people from deprived communities across Wales have benefitted from a three year scheme to improve their health and ability to find work.

The Come Outside! Programme, managed by Natural Resources Wales (NRW), brought partners together to deliver more than 1,000 outdoor activity sessions in Communities First areas across Wales.  The activities ranged from bushcraft to gardening; and from star gazing to geocaching.

Juliet Michael, Come Outside! Programme Manager for NRW, said: “Come Outside! provided opportunities for people in more deprived areas of Wales to live a healthier lifestyle, develop new skills and enjoy the fantastic natural environment in Wales.  It not only improved their job prospects, but made a real impact on their health and wellbeing. By increasing their self-confidence, participants have been inspired to use the local outdoors. More than 80 per cent said that the programme had influenced them to become more active. Nearly half the groups are now independently involved in outdoor activities and up to 700 people say they have now adopted a more active lifestyle involving their friends and families.”

Project case studies, programme updates, a film and the Evaluation Report are all available on NRW's website


Wildlife-friendly farming shown to benefit UK moths - University of Liverpool 

Wildlife-friendly farming schemes can help boost the abundance of many UK moth species, a new study by the University of Liverpool has found.

Large moths (macro-moths) play an important role as pollinators, but numbers have fallen in the UK by 28% since 1968. The situation is particularly bad in southern Britain, where numbers are down by 40%, with habitat loss thought to be behind the decline.

The kinds of moths that benefited the most from the schemes were those commonly found on grassland, but there was a group of specialised chalk grassland moths that only benefited when the schemes were close to remnants of this rare habitat.

Scientists from the University of Liverpool and Natural England assessed the impact of schemes which are creating grassland habitats on the edge of arable farming fields.

The team surveyed macro-moths species on arable fields with and without wide grass margins, and on protected flower-rich chalk grasslands in southern England.

The findings, which are published in the Journal of Applied Ecology, show that even small-scale habitat creation can benefit the moth population, with the abundance of grassland moths 40% higher on wide grass margins compared to margins outside schemes.

Furthermore, moth species that are normally specialised to chalk grassland habitats also benefited from these schemes, provided that habitats were created close to existing chalk grassland.

Access the publication: lison, J., Duffield, S. J., van Noordwijk, C. G. E., Morecroft, M. D., Marrs, R. H., Saccheri, I. J. and Hodgson, J. A. (2016), Spatial targeting of habitat creation has the potential to improve agri-environment scheme outcomes for macro-moths. J Appl Ecol. doi:10.1111/1365-2664.12750


Lowes osprey departs for Africa after a successful season - Scottish Wildlife Trust

​Female osprey LF15 has left Loch of the Lowes wildlife reserve in Perthshire after successfully rearing a full brood of three chicks over the summer.

Charlotte Fleming, Perthshire Ranger, Scottish Wildlife Trust said: “We haven’t seen LF15 for several days which means it’s highly likely that she has now started her long migration south to Africa. Last year she left the reserve on 7 August, it’s possible that blustery winds kept her here slightly longer than usual.”


Birds fly faster in large flocks – Lund University

Researchers at the Faculty of Science in Lund show that birds fly faster in flocks.

Terns photographed on Öland. ( Anders Hedenström)Terns photographed on Öland. ( Anders Hedenström)

New research at Lund University in Sweden shows that the flight speed of birds is determined by a variety of factors. Among the most sensational is that the size of the flock has a significant impact on how fast the birds can fly. The larger the flock, the higher the speed.

Researchers at the Faculty of Science in Lund have now shown how several factors, working simultaneously together, determine the birds’ flight speed. Their morphology, that is, the bird’s weight and the shape of its wings, is one factor; wind direction and speed is another; and the situation (searching for food or travelling long distances) is a third.

However, what surprised the researchers the most was that the flock size has a major impact on the birds’ speed.

“I was surprised that it is such an important factor. It has usually been neglected in studies of bird flight”, says Professor Anders Hedenström who conducted the study together with Professor Susanne Åkesson.


Hornsea offshore wind farm decision devastating for iconic seabirds - RSPB

Pair of gannets displaying at nest (Image: Andy Hay)Pair of gannets displaying at nest (Image: Andy Hay)

The RSPB is deeply concerned that the Secretary of State’s decision to approve the Hornsea Project Two offshore wind farm will lead to the unnecessary death of hundreds of globally important seabirds.

The charity believes that a growing offshore wind industry is critical if the UK is to continue to cut its carbon emissions and fight climate change, however, the RSPB opposed the Hornsea Project Two as it poses an unacceptably high risk to seabirds that nest on the Yorkshire coast.

As Europe’s largest conservation charity, the RSPB supports the move to generating more electricity through renewable sources and encourages the development of renewable energy projects, but this must be delivered in harmony with nature. This means carefully looking at each site and the potential impact or risks any proposal may have on local or migrating wildlife. Unfortunately, the Government licensed this area for wind farm development without doing the necessary surveys.


New farmers and new small farms can kick-start agricultural revolution - CPRE 

Brexit vote offers chance for farming to become more diverse and environmentally resilient, say countryside campaigners

A new report released today by the Campaign to Protect Rural England (CPRE) argues that farming in England needs to become more diverse to prove environmentally resilient and publicly accessible over the coming years .

The New model farming paper argues that a more diverse sector - in demographics, farm size and production – would forge a more resilient future that offers rewards beyond food: beautiful landscapes, clean water, abundant wildlife, better flood management and improved carbon storage. It also argues that a post-Brexit settlement along these lines would make clearer the public benefits of huge public investment in farming.

The paper suggests that Government should attempt to reverse narrow trends of industrialisation and short-term efficiency that have long inflicted damage on vital natural assets - from landscapes and wildlife to soils and water. Damage to soil is estimated to cost £1.2 billion a year, while populations of farmland birds in England have more than halved in the past 40 years .

To arrest this decline in diversity across the sector, CPRE argues that Government should address the bias in policy towards larger farms through the tapering of public funding to benefit smaller farmers. It is currently thought that around 80% of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) payment goes to the 20% largest businesses.

With 34,000 fewer farms in the UK than there were a decade ago, CPRE also suggests that more land should be made available to new groups of farmers and communities .

Access the report.


Reaction: CPRE's New Model Farming paper - NFU

NFU President Meurig Raymond said: “Our 47,000 farmer members represent a diverse industry dedicated to feeding the nation and play a part in feeding the world, working with the natural environment – not against it. Our vision is for a dynamic productive and innovative food and farming sector, which is committed to delivering improvements in health, wealth and environment for the British public. Around 80% of England’s landscape character is now in stable or improving condition – take a walk down some of the 200,000km of public footpaths maintained by farmers to see. This is not a debate about large or small businesses, all farms contribute.  Missing from the CPRE’s vision is food security which, in our view, should be considered to be a legitimate political goal and public good alongside the environment.  British farmers are proud of the high standards of production, traceability of the food they produce and high animal welfare.  British food production is the bedrock of the food and drink sector – which is the largest manufacturing sector in the country contributing £108 billion to the economy and employing nearly four million people. It’s important that we develop an ambitious agricultural policy that will stimulate a productive, competitive and profitable farming sector.  All our survey work shows that the British public wants to buy more British food and, interestingly, survey work also shows the British public believes farmers play a beneficial role in improving the environment at the same time.”


New study: neonicotinoid insecticides linked to wild bee decline across England - Centre for Ecology and Hydrology

Exposure to neonicotinoid seed treated oilseed rape crops has been linked to long-term population decline of wild bee species across the English countryside, according to research published in Nature Communications.

The research, led by the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology using data provided by Fera Science Ltd and the Bees, Wasps and Ants Recording Scheme, examined changes in the occurrence of 62 wild bee species with oilseed rape cropping patterns across England between 1994 and 2011 - the time period spanning the introduction of wide-scale commercial use of neonicotinoids.

Field of oilseed rape in flower (image: CEH)Field of oilseed rape in flower (image: CEH)

The scientists found evidence suggesting that neonicotinoid use is linked to large-scale and long-term decline in wild bee species distributions and communities.

The decline was, on average, three times stronger among species that regularly feed on the crop such as Buff-tailed bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) compared to species that forage on a range of floral resources, indicating that oilseed rape is a principle mechanism of neonicotinoid exposure among wild bee communities.

Neonicotinoids are a group of insecticide which can be applied to seed prior to planting. The active compound is expressed systemically throughout the growing plant so can lead to potential ingestion where pollinators feed on the pollen and nectar of treated crops. 

These findings add to previous small-scale and short-term exposure studies which have identified negative effects of neonicotinoids on honeybees and a limited number of commercially-bred wild bee species.

According to the researchers, the data suggest that neonicotinoid use is correlated with wild bee biodiversity losses at a national scales and has implications for the conservation of bee communities in intensively farmed landscapes. The results add to an extensive body of evidence that will inform the review of the risks neonicotinoid pesticides pose to bees being undertaken by the European Food Standards Authority and anticipated to be complete by January 2017.

Read the paper: Woodcock, B. et al (2016) Impacts of neonicotinoid use on long-term population changes in wild bees in England. Nature Communications. doi:10.1038/ncomms12459


Reaction: CEH study on impacts of neonicotinoids - NFU

NFU bee health specialist Dr Chris Hartfield said: “This study is another interesting piece to an unsolved puzzle about how neonicotinoid seed treatments affect bees. It does not show that neonicotinoids are causing widespread declines in pollinator populations and it certainly does not show that neonicotinoid use has caused any extinction of bees in England.


Find your local community orchard with our new interactive map - PTES 

Wildlife charity People’s Trust for Endangered Species (PTES) has launched the latest element in their ongoing orchard conservation work: an interactive community orchard map that lists around 400 community orchard groups across the UK.

Bramley apples by Megan GimberBramley apples by Megan Gimber

PTES has identified over 35,000 traditional orchards remaining in England and over 7,000 in Wales. Alarmingly, this work revealed that 90% of traditional orchards have been lost since the 1950s, with 48% of the orchards surveyed in England and 35% of orchards in Wales found to be in declining condition.

The map allows members of the public to find their nearest community orchard, to meet others who share a common interest in orchards and wildlife, and enjoy the benefits of locally sourced fruit. Using orchards as a public green space is an effective way to protect orchards from development and sustain these rare habitats into the future.

Through PTES’ new map, people who are already running a community orchard can promote their ongoing work and recruit volunteers for apple picking, tree planting, pr5ning parties and pressing events at orchards across the country.

If you are involved with a community orchard that isn’t already listed, PTES is also keen to add your orchard to their map. To check if it’s already listed, visit: www.ptes.org/community-orchards.


Biodiversity begins at home: saving old villages helps save farmland birds - British Ecological Society

Preserving old villages and farm buildings – and being more creative in designing new rural homes – could help halt the decline in European farmland bird populations, according to new research published today in the Journal of Applied Ecology.

The study, led by Dr Zuzanna Rosin of Adam Mickiewicz University, found that traditional villages in Poland are biodiversity hotspots for farmland birds, whose populations have declined at an alarming rate across Europe over recent decades.

As agriculture becomes ever more intensive, traditional villages will play an increasingly important role in farmland bird conservation, says Rosin, so preserving the variety of farms, homes and building materials is key to conserving farmland birds, whose numbers have fallen dramatically.

According the official State of Europe’s Common Birds, between 1980 and 2005 the population of crested larks declined by 95%, corn buntings by 61% and linnets by 54%.

Previous studies have pointed to agricultural intensification, with the resulting loss of habitat, as a major cause of farmland bird declines. But the importance of old farms and villages to bird biodiversity has been little studied until now.

Working in two regions of western and southern Poland, Wielkopolska and Małopolska, the team of ecologists from Poland and Sweden counted the number and species of birds at three spatial scales: single rural property, village and landscape.

They visited 78 homes and farms in 30 villages, and recorded 12,000 individual birds from 135 species, including many species which are declining in Europe. They found that old rural properties had more birds, from more species, than buildings constructed after 1989 and that farmsteads hosted more bird species than homesteads.

They also found that old, traditional villages are biodiversity hotspots for farmland birds, and that the proportion of new homes in a village has a dramatic impact on bird life. They found 20-25 bird species in villages with less than 10% new dwellings, but when new homes made up 40-50% of a village, fewer than 10 bird species remained. 

Read the paper:  Rosin, Z. M., Skórka, P., Pärt, T., Żmihorski, M., Ekner-Grzyb, A., Kwieciński, Z. and Tryjanowski, P. (2016), Villages and their old farmsteads are hot spots of bird diversity in agricultural landscapes. J Appl Ecol. doi:10.1111/1365-2664.12715


National Trust for Scotland reveals impact of climate change on alpine plants

Measurement of Scotland’s fragile alpine plants at high altitude demonstrates how much of our mountain flora faces extinction, according to experts at the National Trust for Scotland.

The decrease in lying snow, dryer springs and milder, wetter winters are all having an impact on plants which grow in Scotland’s mountainous areas.

Snow pearlwort (image: NTS)Snow pearlwort (image: NTS)

Monitoring of rare mountain plants on Trust land, such as Highland Saxifrage (Saxifraga rivularis) in Glencoe, has revealed the extent to which plants are dying out.  In some cases, plants have completely disappeared from the lower altitude locations in which they once occurred.

Expert teams from the conservation charity have been monitoring results from as far back as the 1950s which show the impact of warmer temperatures at high altitude on protected species.  The Trust currently undertakes detailed research on a six year cycle, which is producing evidence of the long term trend towards extinction, particularly on the lower lying, south facing slopes.  On Coire nam Beith in Glencoe, one population of Highland Saxifrage was seen to reduce from 300 plants in the 1990s to only 31 in recent years.

National Trust for Scotland ecologist, Dan Watson, said: “Our monitoring shows that climate change is affecting Scotland’s mountains at an alarming rate.  Trust monitoring tracks the decrease of rare arctic-alpine plants such as Snow Pearlwort (Sagina nivalis)  on Ben Lawers and Highland Saxifrage in Glencoe and shows how populations are declining at lower altitudes. Meanwhile, common temperate plants less able to cope with extreme climates are moving further up the hills. As the distribution of plants found at high altitude is changing, more work is required to confirm the extent of the problem. These results are firm evidence of the rise in mountain temperatures and the decrease in lying snow on southerly slopes and at lower altitudes. Current estimates indicate that snow cover at 1060m is projected to be reduced by 21% by the 2050s.”


Another satellite tagged bird of prey disappears in the Monadhliath Mountains - RSPB

RSPB Scotland has announced that a young male hen harrier, fitted with a satellite transmitter as part of the charity’s part EU funded Hen Harrier LIFE+ Project, has gone missing on a grouse moor in the Monadhliath Mountains, south-east of Inverness.

The bird, named Elwood, was the only chick to fledge from a nest in Banffshire, which was being monitored under the Partnership for Action against Wildlife Crime Scotland (PAW Scotland) “Heads-up for Harriers scheme”.

The transmitter’s data, being monitored by RSPB Scotland staff, indicated that the young bird fledged from its nest in the first week of July, but stayed close to the site in the hills above the River Spey until the 20th, when he began to travel more widely. By the 27th, he had moved 20 miles to the south west, and had settled in the hills around Tomatin.  The bird remained in this area, with the transmitter providing detailed information about his daily travels until suddenly, transmissions ceased abruptly on August 3rd. The bird’s last recorded position was on an area of managed moorland a few miles from the Slochd summit on the A9.


Response: SGA statement: missing hen harrier - The Scottish Gamekeepers Association

A Spokesman for The Scottish Gamekeepers Association said: "As with other recent allegations, the SGA will work with Police Scotland and Scottish Government in an attempt to get to the bottom of this. It is clearly a situation which cannot go on. We have no independent information, at the present time, so getting the facts will be the first step. Speculation, at this stage, will not help. The SGA does not, and will never, condone wildlife crime. As an organisation we advocate legal solutions, solely, as the means to resolve conflicts. If there is any evidence of illegal activity by an SGA member, appropriate action will be taken."


Response: Moorland Group statement on missing hen harrier - Scottish Land & Estates

Tim Baynes, Director of the Scottish Moorland Group, said: “We are as concerned as anyone when a satellite tagged bird goes missing and particularly in this case because the bird was part of a project involving Scottish Land & Estates and our members.  This bird was tagged on one of our member estates as part of the Heads Up for Harriers project.  We are contacting our partners in the Partnership for Action Against Wildlife Crime (PAW Scotland) to find out more. Estates in the area where the bird went missing are also concerned but have not been approached by RSPB to help in any search. They are unaware of any incident and would be willing to help. We would ask anyone with further information on this to contact Scottish Land & Estates or PAW Scotland.”


Scottish wildcats: next phase of official action plan to tackle threats - Scottish Natural Heritage

Scotland’s largest official wildcat action project is preparing to step up a gear with the launch of an ambitious neutering scheme aimed at stamping out interbreeding and reducing the risk of disease.

Scottish wildcat, (copyright Pete Cairns via SNH)Scottish wildcat, (copyright Pete Cairns via SNH)

Project officers at Scottish Wildcat Action (SWA), which is backed by the Scottish Government, Heritage Lottery Fund, and around 20 other influential organisations, will focus new efforts on the neutering scheme.

Trap, Neuter, Vaccination and Return (TNVR) sees feral cats in wildcat priority areas neutered to prevent them breeding and transmitting diseases to the precious remaining Scottish wildcats.

The technique is already widely-used, and is a vital tool in the arsenal to protect wildcats from hybridisation and disease. No cats – feral or otherwise – are harmed in any way, unless for animal welfare reasons a feral cat has to be put down because of illness. Pet cats are not at risk.

Roo Campbell, the priority areas manager, said: “The chief threat to the wildcat is interbreeding with domestic cats, many of which are feral, and wildcats will continue to lose their wild identity if this is left unchecked.

“Scottish Wildcat Action is committed to reducing the risk of interbreeding between wildcats and feral cats. The best way of doing this humanely is by trapping, neutering, vaccinating and then returning feral cats.

“We were delighted last week to announce that during our initial, extensive survey our 347 camera traps had found 19 Scottish wildcats – with the likelihood that more are out there. As we now focus our attention on the trapping phase of this five-year project, our activity will mean a greater chance that a kitten born next spring will have wildcat parents.”


Endangered water voles return to Yorkshire’s Malham Tarn after fifty year absence - National Trust

One hundred water voles will be reintroduced into the National Trust’s Malham Tarn in the Yorkshire Dales this weekend, in what is believed to be the highest water vole reintroduction project ever carried out in Britain.

This will be the first time the endangered mammals have been seen at Malham Tarn – England’s highest freshwater lake (377m) – in fifty years.

National Trust ecologists believe Malham Tarn’s water voles were wiped out in the 1960s by mink, which escaped from fur farms nearby.

Water vole at Malham Tarn (image: © National Trust Images / Paul C Dunn)Water vole at Malham Tarn (image: © National Trust Images / Paul C Dunn)

Roisin Black, National Trust Ranger at Malham Tarn, said: “In the rest of Europe, water voles are common. In Britain, the creatures are incredibly rare. We know water voles have thrived at Malham Tarn in the past and thanks to work by the National Trust, the habitat here is perfect for water voles again. By reintroducing water voles to the Tarn, we hope to give these rare animals the chance to recolonise the streams in the high Yorkshire Dales.”

Around one hundred water voles will be released in the fen area of the Tarn this year, with a further hundred voles released in June 2017.

The water voles have been specially bred for the National Trust by Derek Gow Consultancy, an ecological consultancy with 18 years’ experience working on wildlife reintroduction projects.


New meadow creation underway in Montgomeryshire - Montgomeryshire Wildlife Trust 

MWT volunteers broadcasting meadow seed at Hurdley MeadowsMWT volunteers broadcasting meadow seed at Hurdley Meadows


In June 2013, HRH The Prince of Wales launched the Coronation Meadows project at his home in Highgrove. His vision was to see a flagship ancient wildflower meadow identified in every county to mark the anniversary of The Queen’s Coronation. Over the last 3 years, this remarkable project has done just that and there are now 88 Coronation Meadows across the UK. These jewels in the crown are places where people can enjoy a riot of colour and an abundance of wildlife in a setting that has remained largely unchanged since the Coronation.

But this incredible conservation effort doesn’t stop here. In order to realise Prince Charles’ vision to create new wildflower meadows, seed is now being collected from these special Coronation Meadows and used to create meadows across the UK, leaving a legacy for the next 60 years. So far, 66 new meadows (totalling 575 acres) have been created since the project began. The new Montgomeryshire meadow being created now is an exciting step towards the goal of 90 meadows to be created by the end of 2016. 

Montgomeryshire’s new meadow, which is being created using seed harvested from Ty Brith, is adjacent to another Montgomeryshire Wildlife Trust nature reserve, Roundton Hill. The meadow seed was broadcasted by hand at Hurdley Meadows by Trust volunteers on 26th July 2016. The outcome of this work will be carefully monitored over the coming years by the site owners. It is hoped that this currently species-poor grassland will soon be as colourful as the donor!


Scientific Publications 

Amael Paillex, Nele Schuwirth, Armin W. Lorenz, Kathrin Januschke, Armin Peter, Peter Reichert, Integrating and extending ecological river assessment: Concept and test with two restoration projects, Ecological Indicators, Volume 72, January 2017, Pages 131-141, ISSN 1470-160X,DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2016.07.048. 


Ramos, A. G. and Drummond, H. (2016), Tick infestation of chicks in a seabird colony varies with local breeding synchrony, local nest density and habitat structure. J Avian Biol. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1111/jav.01107


Kroll, A. J., Verschuyl, J., Giovanini, J. and Betts, M. G. (2016), Assembly dynamics of a forest bird community depend on disturbance intensity and foraging guild. J Appl Ecol. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1111/1365-2664.12773


Mina, M., Bugmann, H., Cordonnier, T., Irauschek, F., Klopcic, M., Pardos, M. and Cailleret, M. (2016), Future ecosystem services from European mountain forests under climate change. J Appl Ecol. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1111/1365-2664.12772


Selden, N. A. C. & Cowie, P. R. (2016) Long-term microplastic retention causes reduced body condition in the langoustine, Nephrops norvegicus. Environmental Pollution. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2016.08.020


Harvey, E., Gounand, I., Ward, C. & Altermatt, F. (2016) Bridging ecology and conservation: from ecological networks to ecosystem function. Journal of Applied Ecology. DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12769


Green, R. E. and Pain, D. J. (2016), Possible effects of ingested lead gunshot on populations of ducks wintering in the UK. Ibis. doi:10.1111/ibi.12400


CJS is not responsible for content of external sites.  Details believed correct but given without prejudice.

Disclaimer: the views expressed in these news pages do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of CJS.