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A round up of the top countryside, conservation, wildlife and forestry stories as chosen by the CJS Team.


It's really not a good year for harriers

Fourth unexplained male hen harrier disappearance in Bowland - RSPB 

A fourth breeding male hen harrier has disappeared from Bowland, Lancashire, leading to the failure of yet another nest. 

Lancashire Police and the RSPB are appealing for any information about what happened to the upland bird of prey, which had an active nest on the United Utilities Bowland Estate.  

The last confirmed sighting of the male was on Friday 29 May when it was observed passing food to the female. RSPB staff continued to see the female in the vicinity of the nest but were concerned by the absence of the male bringing food. They visited the nest on Monday 1 June, and discovered that it had been abandoned and that the eggs were cold.   

This is the latest in a series of unexplained disappearances in the Bowland area, with three breeding males failing to return to their nests earlier in the season.  In another recent incident, Cumbria Constabulary are calling for information about a breeding male hen harrier that vanished from the RSPB’s Geltsdale reserve in Cumbria on Saturday 23 May, resulting in failure of the nest.   

The RSPB has been working on the Untied Utilities estate for over 35 years, developing a strong partnership with the water company, together with the support of its farming and shooting tenants.  

Graham Jones, the RSPB’s conservation manager for the RSPB in North West England, said: “All of the RSPB and United Utilities staff and volunteers who have been monitoring the hen harrier nests in Bowland are devastated by this latest disappearance, as are the estate’s shooting tenants. However, we are now more committed than ever to rescuing this beautiful bird from the brink of extinction in England.”   

Lorraine Ellwood, Lancashire Police Rural Policing and Wildlife Co-ordinator, said: “We remain open minded as to the circumstances surrounding the disappearance of the male harriers, and are exploring all possibilities of both natural and criminal intent. “  


Also blog from Martin Harper: More bad news from Bowland  

However in Scotland: Protecting our raptors, Scotland's nature, SNH's blog

Many raptors in Scotland are at risk – but many of us are also working hard to protect them. Here Vicki Mowat, a member of our Media Relations team,  looks at two ways we’re trying to make sure we keep seeing birds of prey soaring across our skies for years to come.


Plastics Down The Plughole? - Marine Conservation Society

Why conservation concerns are encouraging retailers to wash their hands of microplastics

Retailers who stock and sell personal care products that contain tiny particles of plastic may have finally realised that washes, scrubs, gels and pastes made from natural products are just as effective and won’t damage our seas, says the UK’s leading marine charity.

The Marine Conservation Society (MCS) says many leading high street retailers have promised to stop selling products that contain microplastics. These tiny bits of plastic, which are too small to be trapped in sewage works, are ending up in the sea where they can be ingested by zooplankton and other animals, which in turn are eaten by creatures further up the food chain - and ultimately, us. 

Dr Laura Foster, Pollution Programme Manager at MCS, says the fact that over the last twelve months most retailers have been happy to have the conversation about the problems with microplastics is very encouraging: “A year ago, on World Oceans Day, we formed the Marine Litter Action Network which brought together other NGOs, industry and retailers to look at the issues of litter in our seas and oceans and come up with workable solutions. One of the critical discussions was about microplastics.”

Dr Foster says the ‘Scrub it Out!’ campaign, a joint initiative with Fauna & Flora International (FFI), was a direct result of the Network: “Thousands of members of the public have pledged to ditch products which contain microplastics, whilst we decided to focus on UK retailers to give a date when all their own-brand products would be plastic free.”

On World Oceans Day 2015, MCS and Fauna & Flora International are now asking the public to look for the following ingredients in high end products and upload mobile phone images of labels to its website so it can highlight to companies that luxury on your face could be a liability for the oceans. 

And if you'd like to know more then read MSC's lead article in CJS Focus on Marine & Coastal Environments here.


Bittern Young at Attenborough! - Nottinghamshire Wildlife Trust

Nottinghamshire Wildlife Trust, the county’s largest locally based conservation charity, has today spoken of its delight that bitterns, a bird species of conservation concern across Europe, have bred at its Attenborough Nature Reserve, with two healthy chicks being regularly spotted at the popular site. 

Image: Nottinghamshire Wildlife TrustImage: Nottinghamshire Wildlife Trust

The Wildlife Trust understands this to be the first recorded breeding success for the species in the county and is excited that conservation effort stretching back over 15 years has finally come to fruition.

Speaking about the breeding success Sandy Aitken, who has been a volunteer at the reserve for over 30 years said: “The news that bitterns have bred at Attenborough is fantastic. Fifteen years ago I worked alongside Wildlife Trust staff to design and plant the reedbeds where the birds have nested. The project was very ambitious and involved bulldozing hundreds of tons of material into a deep lake and creating areas where young reed seedlings could become established. The bittern, which has not bred in Nottinghamshire in modern times, is of international conservation concern and has been an important “Flagship species” for this restoration of reed swamp vegetation all over Europe, so to see two little fledgling bitterns poking their heads skywards through the reeds, (waiting for mum to arrive with food) last weekend here on our doorstep at Attenborough, has been especially gratifying for the many local people who have volunteered here, especially those involved in efforts to maintain the reedbeds!”


National Trust reveals potential with badger vaccination programme conclusion – National Trust

The National Trust revealed today (Tuesday 9 June) that it had slashed the costs of vaccinating badgers during a four year project at its Killerton estate in Devon, set in the heart of one of the country’s bovine TB hotspots.

The aim of the project, funded by the conservation charity, was to demonstrate that the vaccination of badgers at an estate-wide scale can be made practical and cost-effective. This has meant that the National Trust can play an important part in reducing the exposure of cattle to bovine TB in wildlife, which has had a devastating impact across the farming community.

Vaccinating badgers in order to reduce their level of bovine TB infection will reduce the risk of cattle being exposed to the disease.

18 National Trust tenant farmers were involved in the programme which was carried out across an area of 20 square kilometres on the south west estate.

When it launched in 2011, the Trust estimated that the project would cost £80,000 a year to administer. During the four years, however, the process of capturing and vaccinating the badgers became more efficient, reducing the annual costs to £45,000 while the number of badgers vaccinated increased significantly from the first year.

Patrick Begg, Rural Enterprises Director for the National Trust, said: “As a major landowner with many farming tenants, we understand how devastating an outbreak of bovine TB can be. That’s why it’s important for us to play our part in tackling this disease by finding a practical solution to prevent its spread. As well as calling for better biosecurity, we started the project at Killerton to show how badger vaccination can be deployed over a large area, which we’ve done. Now we want to share this knowledge and the lessons we’ve learnt with the opening of Killerton as a national training school for the vaccination of badgers.”


GWT release nearly 50 water voles to help bolster population of the UK’s rarest mammals – Gwent Wildlife Trust

Water vole (Norman West)Gwent Wildlife Trust (GWT) is thrilled to announce the release of almost 50 water voles at carefully selected sites around the Barecroft Common reserve near Magor in Gwent.

The addition of new water voles at Barecroft Common adds genetic diversity that will help strengthen the newly reintroduced population found at the neighbouring Magor Marsh nature reserve and surrounding area. For almost ten years, GWT have been working to protect the fragile water vole population from American mink and create the best conditions suitable for a water vole release.

Water vole (image: Norman West)

Water voles were once common in the area, but numbers dwindled following the invasion of the non-native American mink in the 1970s onwards, a sad trend reflected across the UK. Following the continuing work of GWT volunteers and staff, mink numbers were reduced enough to allow the establishment of a reintroduced population of water voles. For the last four years GWT has slowly reintroduced water voles back to Magor Marsh, and the excellent habitat available together with the controlled mink population has meant the population is now thriving.

The voles that have just been released at GWT’s Barecroft Common reserve were kept in large ‘soft release cages’; these are special cages placed onsite that contain sibling family groups. The cages allow water voles time to acclimatise to their new surroundings and then after three days the cages are open for the water voles to come and go as they please. The cages were then left on site for a further two days before being removed.


Give British cities a competitive economic advantage through walking and cycling, reveals new report - Sustrans

Experts are gathering at a summit today (Tuesday 9 June) to make the case that cities that encourage physical activity have a clear economic advantage.

Taking place in Bristol, speakers from KPMG, The University of California, and the CBI, alongside Mayor of Bristol George Ferguson, will call on city leaders to make physical activity a priority and recognise the positive economic and social benefits that it can bring.

The summit hosted by Sustrans, Bristol 2015 European Green Capital and Nike coincides with new research from Active Living Research, University of California, revealing that cities with physically active populations are not only more economically competitive – they also benefit from increased productivity, improved school performance, higher property values, and improved health and wellbeing.


Second generation of small pearl-bordered fritillary butterflies are flying – Durham Wildlife Trust

It was with great delight that the first small pearl-bordered fritillary butterfly was spotted on Saturday the 6th of June at a site where 170 The first small pearl-bordered fritillary butterfly from a caterpillar released in 2014. The second generation from this adult are now flying.caterpillars were released in May 2014. A further five were then spotted on Sunday the 7th. This is fantastic as these are the second generation of adult butterflies  on this site in County Durham.

The first small pearl-bordered fritillary butterfly from a caterpillar released in 2014. The second generation from this adult are now flying (image: Durham WT)

Heart of Durham Project Officer Anne Porter said “This is great news and is confirmation that our hard work has paid off. This is the first site where we reintroduced the caterpillar of this butterfly, and thanks are due to the Heart of Durham volunteers who have done massive amounts of habitat restoration by controlling scrub, planting 1,000′s of marsh violets and nectar plants in order to make it favourable for the small pearl-bordered fritillary. Just two weeks ago we released 100 caterpillars to a new reintroduction site and so we are waiting in anticipation that there will be butterflies flying here too”.


Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon project gets green light on planning - DECC

Planning consent was given today for construction of the world’s first tidal lagoon, in a boost to moving towards a low carbon, home grown energy mix.

If built, turbines in the proposed six-mile horseshoe shaped sea wall around Swansea Bay in Wales could generate around 500GWh per year of low carbon electricity.

Energy and Climate Change and Wales Office Minister Lord Bourne said:

“We need more clean and home-grown sources of energy, which will help to reduce our reliance on foreign fossil fuels. Low carbon energy projects like the tidal lagoon in Swansea Bay could bring investment, support local jobs and help contribute to the Welsh economy and Swansea area.”

Separately from the planning consent, the project is still subject to Contract for Difference (CfD) negotiations to establish whether a tidal lagoon at Swansea Bay is affordable and value for money for consumers. Any decision to offer a CFD for the Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon project would be subject to strict value for money considerations and affordability, and to State aid approval. 


The return of British Sea Power: Consent for world's first Tidal Lagoon Power Plant opens new door in global effort to address climate change - Tidal Lagoon Swansea Bay Plc 

Swansea lagoon power plant gets green light – Friends of the Earth

World's First Tidal Lagoon Receives Planning Consent – The Wildlife Trusts

Harnessing the power of the Severn could provide renewable energy boost – RSPB 

Download all the planning information and history about the project here.


Lincshore campaign to reduce flood risk draws to successful close for 2015 – Environment Agency

A major annual scheme to replenish Lincolnshire beaches has once again drawn to a successful close, reducing flood risk to thousands of homes and businesses along the coast. The Environment Agency’s flagship Lincshore scheme sees sand dredged from the sea bed and pumped onto the beach, replacing levels lost to the sea during the winter.  This reduces the risk of waves reaching and overtopping the main sea defences, prevents rapid deterioration of these, and protects against erosion.

This year, over 500,000 cubic metres of sand were replaced during the 11-week-long campaign. Work started at Mablethorpe on 20 April and proceeded down the coast to finish at Huttoft in June. The dredgers used were the Ham 316 supported by the Dravo Costa Dorada.

Kevin Abbott, Flood and Coastal Risk Advisor with the Environment Agency, said: 'This multi-million pound project enables us to improve flood protection for tens of thousands of homes, as well as commercial and industrial properties and important environmental sites. It also benefits tourism on the coast, as otherwise there would be very little sand on our beaches.'


Water voles reintroduced at Thorley Wash - Herts & Middlesex Wildlife Trust

Herts & Middlesex Wildlife Trust’s nature reserve at Thorley Wash is now home to over 160 endangered water voles as part of an ambitious project to reintroduce water voles into the river Stort. In a joint project between the Herts and Middlesex Wildlife Trust and Essex Wildlife Trust, the voles were transferred from a reserve in Essex. The voles were soon to find themselves ‘homeless’ in Essex following plans to flood their territory in Fingringhoe Wick nature reserve, near Colchester, as part of a separate inter-tidal habitat creation project.  The water voles were carefully collected and transported to their new Hertfordshire home by experts where they were gradually introduced in release pens.

Herts and Middlesex’s Thorley Wash Nature Reserve was specially chosen for the project on account of its abundant and well-established water vole habitat. Once established at Thorley Wash, it is hoped that the water voles will be able to spread along the corridor of wet flushes, ponds, channels and the main Stort Navigation.

Water Vole Water Vole (image Paul Thrush)

The Trust’s Water Vole Conservation Officer, Martin Ketcher, tells us why the project is so important. 'The much-loved water vole, brought so vividly to life by Kenneth Grahame’s ‘Ratty’ in The Wind in the Willows, is in danger of becoming more fiction than fact. Once abundant in our waterways, water voles have suffered a catastrophic population decline in recent decades, to the point where they are now the ‘UK’s fastest declining mammal’.

This steep decline owes partly to the loss of river bank habitat but is chiefly due to mass predation by invasive American mink. 

Without urgent action it is possible that water voles could soon become extinct within Hertfordshire, as they have already been lost entirely from several Hertfordshire rivers including the Stort. Once this has occurred problems with habitat loss become much more significant. Populations become isolated and the need for conservation management on the whole of the river becomes important if the species is to re-colonise.


New study highlights methods to safeguard UK food security - SNH

Farming practices which balance the needs of the land with those of people have a huge part to play in safeguarding food security, a major new study has found. It found that agroecology – food production that makes the best use of nature’s goods and services while not damaging precious resources – can help maintain agricultural productivity. The researchers reviewed evidence for agroecological practices including processes that maintain closed cycles, using on-farm resources to limit inputs and reduce waste.

They also studied the use of legumes (peas, beans, etc.) for enhancing soil fertility, cover crops, minimum tillage, the use of beneficial insects to control pests and agroforestry.

The new study was commissioned by the inter-agency Land Use Policy Group (LUPG) and funded by Scottish Natural Heritage and Natural Resources Wales. It was undertaken by the Organic Research Centre with the Game and Wildlife Conservation Trust.

It found that:

  • Productivity can be maintained, or even increased in some cases, although in organic farming yields might reduce – though more human labour can create employment;
  • Agroecological practices and systems can contribute to greater energy efficiency and lower greenhouse gas emissions;
  • Business profits can be maintained or increased through more efficient input use;
  • Natural resources which support agricultural production, like soil, water and biodiversity, can be nurtured.

Ruth Jenkins, chair of LUPG, said: “Agroecology can form an integral part of sustainable intensification, although there are a number of barriers hindering the wider adoption of this kind of approach, in particular those relating to knowledge exchange. Clearly, further work is required to improve our understanding of the opportunities for agroecological systems and practices to contribute to sustainable intensification - and for these to be more widely adopted on farms.”

Download the report (pdf).


Progress for MPA network - Scottish Government

Rural Affairs Secretary announces ambitious marine protection plan in Scottish waters.

The Scottish Government is putting in place ambitious management measures for Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in Scottish waters, Cabinet Secretary for Rural Affairs, Food and the Environment Richard Lochhead announced today (11/6/15).

Following extensive consultation and engagement with a wide range of marine stakeholders, it is proposed that new statutory measures giving protection to many vulnerable habitats will take effect from 1 October 2015.  The package will not only further conservation objectives of these protected areas, but will also make a contribution towards enhancing the health of Scotland’s seas.

Mr Lochhead said: “Scotland’s seas hold a huge range of species and habitats which are important in UK, European, and global terms. They also provide a significant fish and shellfish resource, which are important to the rural economy of Scotland. All of these commercial and non-commercial species are dependent on a healthy, clean and diverse environment. Taking action to maintain or improve the marine ecosystem will deliver long-term benefits to society, including the fishing industry.   We have already designated those marine features we need to protect such as maerl beds and fan mussel aggregations and now we are proposing management regimes, including limits on certain fishing activities, within each MPA. The impact in the vast majority of cases will mean modest changes to fishing patterns with very limited economic impact given the ability of vessels to fish elsewhere. I am confident this package delivers a balanced response to all of the views we received. The measures are simpler, ambitious, yet still remain proportionate and will not only further the conservation objectives of the MPAs in question, but also contribute to enhancing the health of our seas. Of course, there is still an opportunity for Parliament and others with an interest to scrutinise the proposed measures and make representations to us prior to the measures coming into effect on 1 October 2015 – as such, I’d encourage those with an interest to do so. ” 

Access a report of this consultation here.



Trust welcomes ambitious plans for seabed recovery - Scottish Wildlife Trust

The Scottish Wildlife Trust has welcomed ambitious proposals to protect fragile areas of seabed from damaging fishing practices. Draft legislation announced by the Scottish Government today (11/6/15) for four Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) includes plans to exclude scallop dredging from the entire Wester Ross MPA, which covers the areas of Loch Broom, Loch Ewe and the Summer Isles.

The announcement comes in the wake of strong public support for more ambitious management of protected areas in Scottish seas. In Wester Ross, this was aided by a Trust-supported survey of the coral-like seaweed maerl, which provides nursery areas for young cod, scallops and crabs.  The Trust, Fauna and Flora International and Scottish Natural Heritage jointly organised a survey in the Wester Ross MPA in November 2014, which used an underwater camera system to capture video evidence of the locally known but unrecorded maerl beds.

Several new maerl beds were recorded thanks to the help of a Coigach-based fishing boat and crew who were able to draw on years of experience to point out where the slow-growing and fragile habitat was likely to be found. The discoveries were made off the coast of Ben Mor Coigach, the largest of the Trust’s 120 wildlife reserves, and around the Summer Isles archipelago.

The Scottish Wildlife Trust Living Seas Manager, Alex Kinninmonth, said: “The Trust is pleased to see that the Scottish Government has considered the clear evidence and listened to public opinion. As our survey showed, even within protected areas the true extent and condition of important seabed habitats is still coming to light. Site wide closure to bottom-dredging is a proportionate response to that uncertainty, is simple to comply with, will allow habitats to recover from historic pressures, and most importantly has public backing.”

An interactive map of the maerl survey carried out in the Wester Ross MPA can be accessed by clicking this link. 


Reactions:Stronger seabed protection measures unveiled in response to widespread support for Scottish MPAs - Save Scottish Seas

Calum Duncan, Convenor of Scottish Environment LINK’s marine taskforce and Scotland Programme Manager, Marine Conservation Society said: “Our ‘Don’t Take The P out of MPAs’ campaign has struck a chord. Thousands of people wrote to the Scottish Government urging them to avoid creating paper parks – and Ministers are now clearly starting to listen, by proposing that larger areas of the seabed be protected from damaging fishing activities. We will now be looking closely at the newly-drafted measures to make sure they fulfil the clear and widespread public expectation that MPAs should be managed to recover the ecological health of our seas. We are making a strong social, economic and environmental case for meaningful management that protects our precious seabed and boosts future opportunities for sustainable fishing.”
Kara Brydson, Head of Marine Policy, RSPB Scotland said: “Too often fishermen are blamed for the declining health of our seas, but here we see that by excluding the most damaging fishing activity from our most sensitive wildlife, fishermen are part of the solution.” 


Reactions:Stronger seabed protection measures unveiled in response to widespread support for Scottish MPAs - Marine Conservation Society


How fast does spring travel? About 2mph according to new research - Nature's Calendar (Woodland Trust)

The passage of spring across the UK appears to be speeding up according to analysis of over 20,000 public records in a collaboration between the Woodland Trust, British Science Association and BBC Springwatch.

Records of seven spring events submitted to the Trust’s Nature’s Calendar survey over the last four months have been analysed by Professor Tim Sparks from Coventry University to track the rate of progress up the country.

Thursday’s Springwatch revealed the average speed of the passage of spring this year is 1.9mph, taking nearly three weeks to cover the length of the country from south to north. An average of 1.2mph was recorded using data between 1891 and 1947 and 1.8mph using data recorded between 1998 and 2014.

The research also found that the passage of spring is not directly south to north but is aligned southwest to northeast, as are early spring temperatures.

Professor Sparks said: “Some of these events appear to be more reliable than others in determining the speed of the progress of spring. Comparison with previous years does suggest that spring may be moving faster now than it did in the past.”

Nature’s Calendar is the longest written biological record of its kind, with information dating back to 1736 and is a powerful tool in assessing the impact of climate change.


Deforestation a distinct possibility in parts of the UK - Woodland Trust

New statistics from the Forestry Commission released today (11/6/15) show tree planting rates in sharp decline and, the Woodland Trust believes, belie a greater danger given that there is still no systematic annual recording of woodland losses.

In England, just 2,400 hectares of new woodland was planted in the 2014-15 planting season – a decrease of 900ha on the 2013-14 figure of 3,300ha and even further from the desired 5,000ha.

In Scotland, 7,600ha was planted, 700ha less than last year and again, far short of the 10,000ha target. In Wales just 100ha was planted – 800ha less than last year’s figure and short of the 5,000ha target. And in Northern Ireland where the aspiration is to double woodland cover, planting reached just 200ha.

Taking potential losses into account would show even lower net figures for any increase in woodland cover and in some countries may even show a decline.

Large areas of larch woods, some of which are plantations on ancient woodland sites (PAWS) and critically important for wildlife, have been felled under Statutory Plant Health Notices (SPHN) as a result of a disease known as Phytophthora ramorum. Unlike the majority of areas felled, which are granted permission on condition that the area is restocked, there is no legal requirement for woodland to be restocked after felling under a SPHN.

For instance, around 3,300 hectares of woodland was issued with a SPHN in Wales in 2013-14 (1), where the new planting figures for this year are just 100 hectares. While many woodland owners will replant or encourage natural regeneration, there is no compulsion to do so.

Trees outside woods are not accounted for in the statistics, but in many landscapes make up 30 per cent or more of the tree canopy. Ash trees, currently threaten by ash dieback, are a large component of that. 

Full statistics available here (PDF from Forestry Commission)


Report on beavers in Scotland goes to Minister - Scottish Natural Heritage

Options for the future of beavers in Scotland have been outlined in a final report sent to the Scottish Government today (12 June) by Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH).

The “Beavers in Scotland” report, published today, is one of the most thorough assessments ever done for a species reintroduction proposal. It provides a comprehensive summary of existing knowledge about the likely impact of beavers living in the wild in Scotland and options for their management, and sets out four scenarios for Scottish Ministers to consider. These range from full removal of all beavers to the widespread reintroduction of beavers across Scotland.

Ministers asked for the report to help them decide whether to permanently reintroduce beavers to Scotland.

The report draws on 20 years of work on beavers, including information from the Scottish Beaver Trial, a five-year trial reintroduction in Argyll which finished last May; the study of more than 150 beavers living in the wild in Tayside and work on the impact of beavers on salmon and trout and on areas of productive farmland. It also refers to the experiences that many other European and North American countries have had of living with beavers, presents findings on biodiversity and beavers and looks at where they might recolonise if allowed to stay.

Ian Ross, Chairman of Scottish Natural Heritage said: “The issues surrounding the potential for beaver reintroduction in Scotland have been the subject of intense investigation and discussion over the last 20 years. Over this time we’ve pulled together a significant amount of information, drawing on international as well as Scottish experience. The scenarios have been developed with a wide range of interested parties from across the land management, conservation and environmental sectors. The report sets out the links between the evidence gathered and the risks and benefits of the various options. It also considers management approaches to help mitigate the risks and maximise the benefits, should beavers be permanently reintroduced to Scotland. This comprehensive report will therefore help inform the decision on the future of beavers in Scotland.”

A number of independent scientific studies, reports and reviews on beavers have also been published. The findings are included in the Beavers in Scotland report.

The Beavers in Scotland report can be accessed online here.

The other nine reports can be accessed via the recently published list here.


Scientific publications

Velli, Edoardo,  Bologna, Marco, Silvia, Castelli, Ragni, Bernardino, Randi, Ettore, Non-invasive monitoring of the European wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris Schreber, 1777): comparative analysis of three different monitoring techniques and evaluation of their integration. European Journal of Wildlife Research DOI: 10.1007/s10344-015-0936-2


Maanavilja, Liisa, Kangas, Laura, Mehtätalo, Lauri, Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina  Rewetting of drained boreal spruce swamp forests results in rapid recovery of Sphagnum production. Journal of Applied Ecology.  DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12474


Richard K. Broughton , Grzegorz Hebda , Marta Maziarz , Ken W. Smith , Linda Smith , Shelley A. Hinsley  Nest-site competition between bumblebees (Bombidae), social wasps (Vespidae) and cavity-nesting birds in Britain and the Western Palearctic.  Bird Study  DOI: 10.1080/00063657.2015.1046811


Maanavilja, L., Kangas, L., Mehtätalo, L. & Tuittila, E.S. (2015) Rewetting of drained boreal spruce swamp forests results in rapid recovery of Sphagnum production. Journal of Applied Ecology. DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12474


Dolman, P. M., Collar, N. J., Scotland, K. M. & Burnsid, R. J. (2015) Ark or park: the need to predict relative effectiveness of ex situ and in situ conservation before attempting captive breeding. Journal of Applied Ecology. DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12449


Paleczny M, Hammill E, Karpouzi V, Pauly D (2015) Population Trend of the World’s Monitored Seabirds, 1950-2010. PLoS ONE 10(6): e0129342. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0129342 


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