CJS Logo & link to homepage

A round up of the top countryside, conservation, wildlife and forestry stories as chosen by the CJS Team.


Trust adds backing to beavers - National Trust for Scotland

Conservation charity, the National Trust for Scotland is the latest environmental organisation to say it supports the reintroduction of the beaver. 

The Trust publishes its policy statement this week setting out its position. This comes in advance of Scottish Natural Heritage submitting their report on the reintroduction of the beaver to the Scottish Government.  The charity says that the reintroduction of the Eurasian Beaver to Scotland will see a key element of native fauna restored to its natural ecosystem and supports the conservation of existing beaver populations in Scotland.

Nature Adviser Mr Lindsay Mackinlay said: “Beavers are a native species to Scotland and having carefully weighed up the pros and cons, the Trust believes that they should be resident here.  We would like to see the existing beavers in Argyll and Tayside managed to permit their natural expansion from these core areas and hope that other licensed reintroductions in appropriate areas will augment the existing populations.”

Scotland is one of the few countries in Europe which does not have a wild beaver population and many nations, including the Netherlands, have reintroduced them in recent years.

Lindsay explains: “People might think that the beaver disappeared from Scotland a long time ago and that it therefore no longer has a place here. However, that couldn’t be further from the truth. In wildlife terms, the beaver only just vanished from our countryside a few moments ago and the habitat we have now is much better than it was when it was a common species. The beaver is a crucial element in our countryside which plays an important role in the conservation of other wildlife.  Conservationists call it a keystone species because its presence has such a major impact on the natural environment and its wildlife. Scotland is currently much the poorer without it.”

Read the Trust's policy statement


Project to save Scotland's red squirrels given a boost by RSPB Scotland  - RSPB

Red squirrel in Scots pine tree (image: Andy Hay, RSPB)Red squirrel in Scots pine tree (image: Andy Hay, RSPB)

RSPB Scotland has joined the fight to save the red squirrel from extinction by entering the pioneering Saving Scotland’s Red Squirrels project.  The wildlife conservation charity has joined forces with five other charitable, government and landowning bodies in a bid to secure the future of the iconic woodland mammal. 

Since 1952, 95% of red squirrels in England and Wales have been wiped out, and today 75% of the UK’s remaining population is found in Scotland. However, greys still threaten the existence of the native reds because they compete for food and habitat, and transmit the deadly squirrelpox virus.

The project aims to continue to prevent the spread northwards of grey squirrels and squirrelpox via a programme of grey squirrel control in a zone running coast to coast along the Highland Boundary Fault. It will also define and map priority areas for red squirrel conservation in south Scotland, and co-ordinate the delivery of the grey squirrel control required to sustain healthy red squirrel populations.

Dr Aileen McLeod, Minister for Environment, Climate Change and Land Reform, said: “Scotland has adopted a pioneering approach to protecting our red squirrel population, which involves a number of organisations working together. The numbers of red squirrels in Scotland are increasing and are now returning to their former habitats.  I am also delighted that RSPB Scotland are now involved in Saving Scotland’s Red Squirrels, who will bring a wealth of knowledge to the project, which will benefit red squirrel conservation in Scotland.” 

Stuart Housden, Director of RSPB Scotland, said: “We are in the privileged position of owning and managing more than 80 nature reserves across Scotland, and we already possess a huge responsibility for delivering on the conservation of our native red squirrels. We have been very impressed with the work of the Saving Scotland’s Red Squirrels project, as it represents what we believe is the very best chance of preventing the extinction of this species on the British mainland. We are really pleased not only to be joining forces with the member organisations to help contribute to this important work, but also to commit hard-won charitable funds to this excellent project. We are looking forward to a very productive and constructive partnership.”

Project Manager for Saving Scotland’s Red Squirrels, Mel Tonkin, said: “Saving Scotland’s Red Squirrels has already been successful in beginning to reverse the downward trend for red squirrels in Scotland, but our work will need to continue for many years to really secure the future of the species. We are therefore delighted with this new partnership with RSPB Scotland. The RSPB has plenty of experience in the challenges of long-term species conservation and brings with it the opportunity to get a lot more people engaged in red squirrel conservation.”


Countryside campaigners urge Government to translate positive rhetoric into decisive action on rural tranquillity - CPRE

CPRE argues national data and mapping are needed to protect most tranquil parts of England

New research from the Campaign to Protect Rural England (CPRE), published today (26/5/15), shows that better data collection and a new indicator of tranquillity are needed to increase protection for England’s most peaceful areas.

In surveying a range of authorities, from National Parks to borough councils, CPRE’s Give peace a chance report shows that 90 per cent of authorities would like better guidance and new data to develop tranquillity policies. More than 90 per cent of respondents support the case for new national tranquillity maps, which CPRE believes could greatly help local authorities when new infrastructure projects are planned.

Numerous studies show that immersion in nature is good for health and wellbeing. Tranquillity is therefore a vital resource for people to relieve stress and recharge their batteries. Yet, in 2007, CPRE’s ‘intrusion’ mapping showed that such areas are getting rarer: the tranquillity of England is being increasingly fragmented by urban development and new infrastructure.

CPRE’s report finds that some planning authorities have successfully developed policies to protect tranquillity since 2012, when the Government’s flagship planning reform, the National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF), encouraged them to do so. Yet the report indicates that few authorities outside of those set up to manage protected areas like National Parks have implemented policies protecting tranquillity – and 75 per cent of authorities without a current policy do not plan to introduce one.

Following recent speeches from senior Conservatives advocating the importance of sensitive infrastructure design, and related manifesto commitments, CPRE is calling for Government to invest in planning guidance, an agreed definition of tranquillity, and a new “indicator” of tranquillity - including maps and supporting data.

Alongside investment from Government, CPRE would like to see infrastructure providers and regulators set up design panels, as demonstrated by HS2 and Highways England. The panels would develop good design principles aimed at mitigating the impacts of new infrastructure on rural tranquillity through methods such as putting power lines underground, tunnelling and tree planting.

To help people find their nearest tranquil spaces, and to see the most disrupted areas, CPRE is also now releasing its 2007 tranquillity maps in an interactive format. These maps are the best resource for councils to identify tranquillity in their area - yet date back nearly a decade. This highlights the urgent need for a new Government-backed indicator with data to support it. 

Access the report here (Info & PDF download link)

And look at the 2007 Tranquillity Map here.


Mosaic Wales project draws to a close and starts a new chapter - Campaign for National Parks

More than 2,200 people from black and minority ethnic (BME) communities have been brought to Welsh National Parks for the first time thanks to the three year Mosaic project run by the Campaign for National Parks.
A total of 68 Community Champions across five Welsh cities have been recruited to promote National Parks as place to enjoy, relax and volunteer but also as important landscapes to protect.
And two new groups have grown out of Mosaic to continue the work of introducing new people to Wales’ National Parks: Diversity Outdoors aims to link BME communities in South Wales with the Pembrokeshire Coast National Park, while Community Footprints plans to continue the link between champions in Newport, Barry and Cardiff with the Brecon Beacons National Park.
Sarah Wilson, Mosaic Wales project manager, said she was delighted with the success of the project. “Not only have more people got to know some of Wales’ most inspirational landscapes, but there is now increased understanding among the Welsh Government and National Park Authorities of the social value that these landscapes have in terms of health, well-being and social cohesion.  Personal relationships forged through Mosaic between Community Champions, YHA managers and National Park Authority staff have also greatly assisted mutual understanding and more inclusive services."
Pembrokeshire National Park Authority Discovery Team Leader Graham Peake said: “Mosaic worked really well in Pembrokeshire. There were numerous visits to Pembrokeshire Coast National Park with Champions to explore and experience some amazing places with the support of Authority staff and local residents.  We plan to continue working with Diversity Outdoors, the group established by Pembrokeshire Champions, in the future.”
Clare Parsons, Sustainable Communities Manager for Brecon Beacons National Park Authority said:  “Our Officers and Members have enjoyed working with Mosaic staff and Community Champions over the past three years.  Our experiences with Mosaic have given us a direct insight into the value that black and ethnic minority communities place on visiting the National Park, and also the potential barriers they face when making these visits.  We continue to work to address these where we can."


Call for help to combat spread of tree disease – Forestry Commission Scotland

Forestry Commission Scotland has urged members of the public to join owners and managers of woodland in helping to combat a tree disease hitting larch in the west and north of Scotland.

Phytophthora ramorum (P. ramorum) is a fungus-like disease that affects more than 150 plant species, including Rhododendron ponticum and viburnum, but which is especially destructive on larch trees.

Having badly affected larch in South West Scotland, the disease is also affecting larch in West Argyll, Lochaber and Cowal & Trossachs.

The Commission is asking that anyone visiting or working in larch woodland to first of all ‘arrive clean’ and to also keep their eyes open for tell-tale symptoms of the disease.

Gordon Donaldson, for the Commission’s team in Cowal & Trossachs, said; “This disease has been making itself felt in the north and west - and although these areas haven’t been as badly hit as Galloway, the impact is, none the less, highly damaging. It can kill infected larch trees very quickly. Its impact is most obvious in amenity areas, but larch timber has commercial uses and the disease can therefore also have a harmful economic impact. Within a season, it can destroy decades of effort from foresters and that’s heartbreaking. The only way of tackling it is to reduce its rate of spread and this is best done by observing good biosecurity – cleaning mud off boots, tyres and pets before going to visit woodland – because dirt can carry these diseases from one place to another. We can also reduce the rate of spread by felling diseased trees as soon as possible to prevent the release of spores high up in the canopy as these can then be carried to other woodlands in the air and water. Unfortunately, these are the only practical ways of dealing with this disease and the more quickly that infected trees are felled the better our chances of keeping other forests healthier for longer. That’s why we’re asking that people keep their eyes open and report - as quickly as possible - any larch trees that look unhealthy this summer.”

Anyone spotting larch trees that they think might be infected should report their findings via the Tree Alert facility on the Forestry Commission website.


£750,000 cash boost for farmers and wildlife in Somerset – Somerset Wildlife Trust

Lord Fellowes of West Stafford, President of The Royal Bath & West of England Society, will today (27 May) formally launch an exciting £750,000 project, funded by players of People’s Postcode Lottery, to help farmers in Somerset to farm in a way that reduces flood risk while enhancing wildlife and producing high quality food. The launch takes place at the Royal Bath and West Show.

The project, called "Hills to Levels" is a partnership between The Royal Bath & West of England Society, Somerset Wildlife Trust, RSPB and the Farming and Wildlife Advisory Group South West (FWAG SW).

The project will work in four key areas:

  • It will advise landowners in the upper catchments of the Rivers Parrett, Tone, Brue and Axe on ways in which they can 'slow the flow' of run-off to help reduce flood peaks, improve water quality, decrease soil erosion and increase wildlife. This includes funding a whole range of measures from woodland planting to constructing small dams, silt traps and leaky ponds.
  • It will work with farmers on The Levels and Moors to advise on flood resilient farming techniques. For instance the project will carry out research such as trialling new grass seed mixes which are productive, but resistant to flooding.
  • It will explore the establishment of a Community Land Trust to own, lease or otherwise rent land at high risk of flooding, and to support the management of similar land by others, so that these areas can bring a wide range of benefits to the local communities, businesses and the environment of the Levels and Moors for years to come. Such acquisitions, particularly those areas which are most vulnerable to adverse impacts from flooding, could thereby release capital for farms to re-shape their businesses. Acquisition could be by purchase, lease or gift.
  • And finally it will work with local communities to produce a collective vision for the Levels and Moors that represents the views of everyone living and working in this unique and much loved landscape.

Edwin White of The Royal Bath & West of England Society said; "The Levels and Moors are a special place, and all of us who are passionate about its future want to see it farmed productively and safe from the worst excesses of flooding while maintaining its internationally important wildlife. We firmly believe this is possible, and through the kindness of players of the People’s Postcode Lottery, we know we can make huge strides towards securing a bright future for this unique landscape, its people and wildlife."


Shooting industry’s representative resigns from the Lead Ammunition Group over ‘abuses of process' – Countryside Alliance

The Executive Chairman of the Countryside Alliance, Sir Barney White-Spunner, has resigned from the Lead Ammunition Group (LAG) in protest at “abuses of process and evidence that render the group’s work so flawed it can never reach any scientific conclusions”.

The LAG was set up under the Labour Government in 2010 at the behest of the Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust and the RSPB, on the back of scientific evidence from America, to advise Defra on any risks to wildlife, human health and livestock from the use of lead ammunition, and how to mitigate them. It has not yet produced a report. Sir Barney White-Spunner, Executive Chairman of the Countryside Alliance has served on the LAG since 2013 and represents the shooting community on the group. 

Sir Barney said: “The Chairman circulated a draft Lead Ammunition Group Report in April in which the majority of the group had no part in drafting. That document is very far from a reflection of the LAG’s discussions and draws incorrect conclusions from that evidence which the LAG has agreed. More seriously, many of those conclusions are based on evidence that the LAG has simply not agreed and were presented to the rest of the group as a fait accompli. I have submitted 172 detailed comments of evidence and process on the Chairman’s draft report and I cannot continue to serve as the representative of the shooting community on the LAG due to my profound disagreement with the way process has been conducted. However, neither I nor the Countryside Alliance will be walking away from this issue. Given the failure of the LAG process we will be consulting with the shooting community, other representative shooting groups and public bodies as to the best way to proceed.”


Reactions to Wednesday's Queen's Speech

Queen’s Speech Must Deliver Certainty and Confidence to Invest for Rural Businesses – CLA

Our Chief Executive responds to the Queen’s Speech – Woodland Trust

Govt to give communities powers over wind farms - but not fracking – Friends of the Earth

Ramblers reaction the Queen's Speech

Lack of active travel in Queen's Speech a disappointment - Sustrans


MSPs urged to end horticultural peat extraction - Scottish Wildlife Trust

The Trust is urging MSPs to send a message to the Scottish Government that the damaging practice of horticultural peat extraction should end.

The issue will be debated in Holyrood later today (28/5/15), after a motion raised by the Rural Affairs and Climate Change Committee Convenor, Rob Gibson MSP, received cross-party support.

Peat bogs are increasingly being recognised for the ecosystem services they provide - such as water filtration, flood mitigation and carbon capture - and are much more valuable to society than their use after being dug up.

Commercial peat extraction is damaging and destroying some of Scotland’s valuable raised bogs with applications for commercial peat extraction continuing in the planning system. The Scottish Wildlife Trust has recently objected to commercial peat extraction applications for Springfield Moss in Midlothian and Mossmorran in Fife. Unfortunately, the Springfield Moss application was granted, permitting a further 25 years of peat extraction for horticulture. This will involve removal of up to 3.5 metres of peat – which is likely to have begun forming during the Bronze Age, 3500 years ago.

Peat-free composts are commercially available and numerous high-profile gardeners have moved to completely peat-free methods of gardening, showing that peat usage is not essential for successful horticulture.

To read the Scottish Wildlife Trust briefing on horticultural peat extraction for the debate, please click here.


People power to help tackle tree disease - Forestry Commission 

New tree health ‘early warning system’ established

Citizen science and new technology are being combined in the fight against tree disease as part of Observatree, a new project launched this spring aiming to help protect the UK’s trees, woods and forests from harmful pests and diseases – existing or new.

Over the past 12 months more than 200 volunteers across the UK have been trained as part of the collaboration between Forest Research, the Forestry Commission, Defra and Natural Resources Wales, FERA, APHA, the National Trust and the Woodland Trust, funded by the EU’s Life programme.

The volunteers will, amongst other tasks, verify cases of tree disease recorded via the Forestry Commission’s Tree Alert, an online reporting tool which allows anyone to report trees showing signs of ill-health.  

Reporting through Tree Alert is the fastest way to get tree health concerns to scientists. Tree health officers and forestry professionals are especially being encouraged to use Tree Alert to report possible sightings of pests and diseases at an early stage.

Chief Plant Health Officer, Professor Nicola Spence, said:  “Protecting our trees from the threat of pests and diseases is vitally important to us all, and this project is an excellent example of volunteers, NGOs and government working together to achieve more than we could alone.  The forestry sector, with its wealth of expertise, has a particularly important role to play in protecting the future of our trees through keeping a look out for signs of tree pests and diseases, and reporting sightings through Tree Alert. Early warning systems such as this will give us the best chance of eradicating and controlling these threats.”

By focusing on pests and diseases which are of highest concern, the volunteers will support Government agencies such as Forest Research, enabling them to take appropriate action at locations of significance identified by the volunteers and Tree health officers as quickly as possible.

Dr Joan Webber, Principal Pathologist at Forest Research, added: “Observatree’s network of trained volunteers gives Forest Research’s scientists many more eyes on the lookout for new threats to tree health. They provide quality reports that let our experts focus on the most urgent cases.”

For further information about the project visit www.observatree.org.uk



Who ate the grain? - Game and Wildlife Conservation Trust

It is now widely recognised that game and other struggling farmland birds have a better chance of survival when over-winter supplementary grain is provided to sustain them over the leanest times of the year. But until now there has been no systematic research on how much of this costly, but life-saving food is wasted on rats and other undesirable pests.

For the first time, a new study, carried out by researchers from the Game & Wildlife Conservation Trust (GWCT) and published in the Journal of Wildlife Management, has identified how much food is consumed by desirable and non-desirable species as well as finding clever ways of reducing this problem.

A new study by the Game & Wildlife Conservation Trust has revealed that more than 67 per cent of the food provided through hoppers for game and farmland birds was consumed by pest species, particularly rats, pigeons and corvids. A new study by the Game & Wildlife Conservation Trust has revealed that more than 67 per cent of the food provided through hoppers for game and farmland birds was consumed by pest species, particularly rats, pigeons and corvids.

Shockingly, the study revealed that more than 67 per cent of the food provided was consumed by pest species, particularly rats, pigeons and corvids – all of which are rapidly increasing in number in the UK.

This two-year study, carried out by Dr Carlos Sanchez-Garcia and supervised by Dr Francis Buner from the GWCT, involved putting camera traps on nearly 260 game feeders containing wheat grain on three lowland farms in Southern England in Oxford and Hampshire during the winters of 2012 and 2013. Over this period more than 160,000 photographs showing the various visitors to the feeders were taken and analysed as part of the study.

Carlos Sanchez-Garcia, explains the significance of this study, “Our previous research has shown how much gamebirds and declining farmland bird species benefit from this important activity and how it improves their breeding performance later in the year. However, over-winter feeding is both time-consuming and costly, and without mitigation measures being applied to control unwelcome visitors, more than half of the food may be consumed by non-target species.”

As part of the study, the researchers wanted to identify whether location made a difference to the amount of food consumed by non-target species, whilst not deterring game and songbirds. In the trial, feeders along hedgerow cover were attractive to all species except corvids who preferred more open fields. Interestingly when the feeders were moved and only available in open fields the gamebirds and songbirds used these feeders but not the rats. Additionally when the feeders were located in the hedgerow and periodically moved 25 metres from the original location the gamebirds and songbirds located them at the new locations within 1-3 days, whereas the rodents needed 2-4 days to locate the feeders.

Carlos Sanchez-Garcia says, “As this study identifies, over-winter feeding can be a costly and time-consuming exercise when pest control is not carried out at the feeders. This large scale study identifies that current feeding practices used by farmers and gamekeepers need to be revised to ensure that mainly target species and not pests are the beneficiaries of this important food source. Our previous studies stress the need to continue feeding in late winter and we would recommend that feeders are placed along hedgerows when efficient control of rats is maintained and to place feeders in open fields when no efficient rat control is carried out. A regular change of the feeder location (every 7-10 days) is also recommended to reduce the impact of rodents and other unwelcome visitors.”

Access the paper: Sánchez-García, C., Buner, F. D. and Aebischer, N. J. (2015), Supplementary winter food for gamebirds through feeders: Which species actually benefit?. The Journal of Wildlife Management. doi: 10.1002/jwmg.889


White-tailed eagle project celebrates significant milestone: BBC Springwatch reveal 100th breeding pair on Hoy - RSPB

Adult white-tailed eagle in flight, image: Niall Benvie, RSPBAdult white-tailed eagle in flight, image: Niall Benvie, RSPB

Forty years since white-tailed eagles were re-introduced to Scotland these magnificent birds have reached the important milestone of 100 breeding pairs. As revealed by Iolo Williams on this evening’s edition of BBC Springwatch (28.05.15, BBC2, 8pm) the 100th pair nested on Hoy, the first white-tailed eagles to nest in Orkney for 142 years.

This milestone comes in a year of significant anniversaries for the re-introduction programme. It is 40 years since the first young white-tailed eagles from Norway were released on Rum in 1975 and 30 years since the first wild chick fledged on Mull in 1985.  The white-tailed eagles on Hoy have been seen in the area every spring and summer since 2013 and are both thought to be young birds between four and five years. This was their first known nesting attempt and although they were unsuccessful in raising chicks this year the pair have gained vital experience for future nesting attempts.

Stuart Housden, Director of RSPB Scotland said: “The 100th breeding pair marks a huge milestone for the re-introduction of white-tailed eagles, and to reach it in this important anniversary year for the programme makes it even more special. The success of bringing white-tailed eagles back to Scotland over the last 40 years owes a great deal to the partners involved, as well as the support of Police Scotland, landowners, farmers, local community groups and organisations, and to Norway who gifted the young eagles. It’s fantastic to see how these magnificent birds have captured the public’s imagination and that the sight of a white-tailed eagle soaring in the Scottish sky is no longer a thing of the past. We’re delighted to celebrate the 100th breeding pair with BBC Springwatch.”

Susan Davies, SNH’s chief executive, said: “What a great conservation achievement - everyone in Scotland should be proud of this! Thanks to the many land managers and communities for all their hard work. Now these spectacular birds are back, bringing new tourism opportunities to fragile areas. Given their geographical spread, there's growing chances of seeing these magnificent birds in your local area. It’s particularly wonderful that the birds have spread so far that we have the 100th pair nesting in Orkney, now restored to an area where sea eagles reigned so many years ago. This is one of nature's brilliant success stories.”


 Welsh woodland as vulnerable as tropical rainforest? - Plantlife

Meirionnydd Oakwoods revealed to be more botanically significant than originally thought.

The woodlands of the ancient kingdom of Meirionnydd in north west Wales, are as important as some tropical rainforests, Plantlife can reveal. The conservation charity has just finished an 18-month project, funded by Natural Resources Wales, to map the Meirionnydd Oakwoods and has discovered that it is more internationally significant than had been previously thought.Mossy stones in Meirioneth Oakwoods, © Dave Lamacraft/Plantlife

 Mossy stones in Meirioneth Oakwoods, © Dave Lamacraft/Plantlife

The Meirionnydd Oakwoods Important Plant Area is temperate rainforest; part of the Celtic Rainforest of Western Britain and Ireland. This habitat is rarer around the globe than tropical rainforest; beyond Britain and Ireland it is found mainly in the redwood forests of North America, the beech forests of southern Chile, in south-east Australia, New Zealand, China and Taiwan.

What makes it so important in Wales are the plants and fungi that grow there – internationally important populations of mosses, liverworts and lichens, the tiny plants and fungi that give woodland like this its luxurious green covering. Dave Lamacraft, Plantlife lower plants and fungi officer for Wales, and three other intrepid experts surveyed an area of woodland equivalent in size to 1,000 football pitches and made some important new discoveries.

"Whilst it is always exciting making new discoveries, the best bit for me", says Paul Rutter, project leader, "was the return of grazing to the woodland. Seeing Highland cattle grazing tree saplings might alarm some conservationists, but they’re doing exactly what’s needed – opening out the canopy so the lichens can thrive again".

Sam Bosanquet, moss and lichen ecologist from Natural Resources Wales says: “The discovery of these new species is a significant find, and highlights the importance of this area of woodland as a rich habitat, home to a diverse range of plants, lichens and mosses. Mosses soak up rain, prevent erosion and reduce soil run-off into rivers, and lichens take in nutrients from the atmosphere and help to feed the forest ecosystem. Insects that provide food for birds and other animals also thrive in these mossy areas. “The Plantlife surveys have increased the depth of information we have about this special area, and armed with this knowledge, we can make sure they are protected for the future and that sustainable development takes place in appropriate areas.” 


Scientific Publications

Kathrin Tarricone, Gerhard Wagner, Roland Klein, Toward standardization of sample collection and preservation for the quality of results in biomonitoring with trees – A critical review, Ecological Indicators, Volume 57, October 2015, Pages 341-359, ISSN 1470-160X, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2015.05.012.



Rufus B. Sage, Sue Wilson, Tony Powell, Using fledged brood counts of hedgerow birds to assess the effect of summer agri-environment scheme options, Ecological Indicators, Volume 57, October 2015, Pages 376-383, ISSN 1470-160X, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2015.04.041.


D'Amico, M., Clevenger, A. P., Román, J. and Revilla, E. (2015), General versus specific surveys: Estimating the suitability of different road-crossing structures for small mammals. The Journal of Wildlife Management. doi: 10.1002/jwmg.900


CJS is not responsible for content of external sites.  Details believed correct but given without prejudice.

Disclaimer: the views expressed in these news pages do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of CJS.