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A round up of the top countryside, conservation, wildlife and forestry stories as chosen by the CJS Team.


Flood risk management partners invite views on how flood risk is managed in Scotland - SEPA

The Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) and local authorities are today (Monday 2 March) calling on the public and businesses to share their opinions on the most comprehensive assessment of flood risk, and its impacts, ever compiled in Scotland.

We have launched a joint consultation, which can be viewed at: https://frm-scotland.org.uk, to help shape the future direction and delivery of flood risk management in the country.

The most sustainable combination of actions to help tackle flooding, in areas identified as being at the greatest risk across Scotland, are detailed in the consultation alongside information on where we can gain the most benefits from taking action.

Members of the public and businesses have until Tuesday 2 June to comment on the consultation. All responses received by this date will help inform the final flood risk management strategies and local flood risk management plans.

Scotland has been divided into 14 Local Plan Districts for flood risk management purposes. In December 2015, following feedback from this consultation, SEPA will publish a flood risk management strategy for each of the 14 Local Plan Districts. Each strategy will confirm the immediate priorities for flood risk management as well as set out the future direction to be taken by all responsible authorities.

Dr David Pirie, SEPA's Executive Director, said:  "This consultation is an important opportunity for people across Scotland to have their say on how flood risk is managed in the future. The main flooding issues and flood impacts across Scotland are set out in the consultation with a vision for how flooding should be managed. We have been working closely with local authorities to identify the most suitable actions to manage flood risk, and this is targeted towards areas where it will be most effective based on improved knowledge of the sources and impacts of flooding.  "We would encourage people who are interested in tackling flooding and reducing its impacts on communities across Scotland to get involved and make sure your views are heard by taking part in this consultation."


NPMS launches today! - National Plant Monitoring Scheme

The new National Plant Monitoring Scheme (NPMS), launched on 1 March, will for the first time enable scientists to take an annual stock take of the UK’s wild plants and their habitats, but to do this we need the public’s help. We are looking for volunteers to carry out surveys of wildflowers and their habitats that will provide robust evidence of which widespread plants are increasing or declining, as well as indicating the changing state of our most valued habitats such as grassland, fenland and even road verges. Plants are nature’s building blocks and this new monitoring scheme will sit alongside existing schemes for the UK’s birds and butterflies to help us understand more about how the countryside is changing.

Chris Cheffings, from the Joint Nature Conservation Committee says “Currently, information on plant species’ abundance and change is very limited, and it is difficult to gauge the condition of habitats outside protected sites. JNCC is delighted to be able to support the NPMS, which will fill this significant gap in UK biodiversity surveillance.  The annual results collected by volunteers will help to identify trends in hundreds of species, allowing us to assess plant community changes.”

The search is now on to find 2000 volunteers to take part in the NPMS who will play a vital role in gathering information. Together the volunteers will monitor wild plants in 28 important habitats, ranging from hedgerows and meadows to salt marsh and scree slopes.

Oliver Pescott, from the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology says “The results from this new scheme should allow us to quantify the smaller changes that are occurring within our most valuable habitats. In the past, volunteer-collected data have been able to demonstrate the results of large-scale habitat loss over the last century, now we would like to reveal even more detail about the changes within the remaining areas of these habitats in our landscape.”


A Wild Life is a Better Life - Wildlife Trusts

David Attenborough is part of 'My Wild Life'

David Attenborough is part of 'My Wild Life' - a new campaign highlighting why the natural world is so important to us all

When we stop and think, we all know that nature is good for us – but how often do we stop and think?

The Wildlife Trusts are launching My Wild Life today which encourages us all to stop for a minute to reflect on what wildlife means to us and think about how to make wildlife part of our everyday lives.  If we did this, not only would wildlife benefit, but so would we – because contact with nature is good for us. Those people lucky enough to live near and experience green spaces have a 50% chance of being more healthy – both physically and mentally and are 40% less likely to become overweight or obese.

Sir David Attenborough has travelled the world in search of wildlife but in London where he lives he can watch stag beetles flying in his garden and marvel at ancient trees in London’s parks.  Sir David, The Wildlife Trusts’ President Emeritus, says: “Contact with nature should not be the preserve of the privileged. It is critical to the personal development of our children.

This is why The Wildlife Trusts are restoring wildlife and wild places in towns and cities as well as in the countryside, and why we are encouraging people from all walks of life to share their own personal stories about what nature means to them.  Sir David Attenborough is one of hundreds of people taking part so far, alongside students, nurses, families, volunteers, teachers and many others from across the UK.  From today his, and other stories, can be found at www.mywildlife.org.uk where people can add their own story and discover wild places near to them.


Shot peregrine found dead at Derbyshire Wildlife Trust headquarters - Derbyshire Wildlife Trust

A male peregrine falcon has been shot and found dead outside Derbyshire Wildlife Trust’s offices at East Mill in Belper, Derbyshire.

X-ray of peregrine found at Belper's East Mill (image: Derbyshire Wildlife Trust)A local photographer found the dead peregrine and alerted Derbyshire Wildlife Trust, who took the corpse to a vet. They x-rayed the bird and discovered the shot lodged in its shoulder. Further expert veterinary analysis confirmed that this was a very recent shooting which was likely to be linked to its death.

X-ray of peregrine found at Belper's East Mill (image: Derbyshire Wildlife Trust)

Tim Birch, Derbyshire Wildlife Trust’s Head of Advocacy and Conservation Strategy, said, “We have all been shocked at the Trust by the shooting of the male peregrine at our headquarters in Belper. To have a wildlife crime happening right on our doorstep is both alarming and upsetting. Many people from Belper, and indeed from around the whole region, have been thrilled to watch Peregrines around the mill where we work. We feel very privileged to have these birds living alongside us. We strongly condemn the shooting of this bird.”

On discovering the shot in the bird, the Trust immediately reported the death as a wildlife crime and has worked closely with the police on the matter. Darren Belfield, who is working on the case for Derbyshire Constabulary said, “Birds of prey, such as the peregrine falcon, are fully protected by legislation which makes it an offence to deliberately kill or injure them. The perpetrators of this cruel and deliberate act have shown a clear disregard for the law surrounding this species.”

Since the death of the peregrine, a new male has flown in from Dorset and taken up residence with the female at East Mill and has been seen mating with her. This should be something to celebrate but at the moment the Trust is concerned for its safety.

Derbyshire Constabulary are appealing for anyone with information regarding this incident to come forward and any information will be dealt with in the strictest confidence. The bird was found dead on 17th January and the RSPB are offering a reward of £1000 for any information. Reports of wildlife crime are taken very seriously. If anyone has any information relating to this incident or any form of wildlife crime please contact the police immediately or via Crimestoppers on 0800 555 111.


Europe's environment 2015: Future prosperity depends on bolder steps in policy, knowledge, investments and innovation - European Environment Agency 

Europe's environment and climate policies have delivered substantial benefits, improving the environment and quality of life, while driving innovation, job creation and growth. Despite these gains, Europe still faces a range of persistent and growing environmental challenges. Addressing them will require fundamental changes in the systems of production and consumption that are the root cause of environmental problems. 

These are some of the key messages from the European Environment Agency's five-yearly assessment 'The European environment – state and outlook 2015' (SOER 2015), published today (3/3/15). SOER 2015 is an integrated assessment of Europe's environment. It also includes assessments and data at global, regional and country levels, as well as cross-country comparisons.

Today, Europeans enjoy cleaner air and water, less waste is sent to landfill and more resources are recycled. However, Europe remains a long way from achieving the objective of 'living well within the limits of the planet' by 2050, as set out in the 7th Environment Action Programme. Although we use natural resources more efficiently than previously, we are still degrading the resource base that we rely on in Europe and across the world. Problems such as biodiversity loss and climate change remain major threats.

SOER 2015 highlights the need for more ambitious policies to achieve Europe's 2050 vision. It also stresses the need for new approaches that respond to the systemic nature of many environmental problems. For example, external pressures, including global megatrends, can counteract specific policies and local environmental management efforts. In addition, many environmental challenges are closely linked to systems of production and consumption that support numerous jobs and livelihoods and changes to these systems create diverse costs and benefits. Moreover, efficiency improvements are often negated by increased consumption.

The report concludes that although full implementation of existing policies will be essential, neither the environmental policies currently in place, nor economic and technology-driven efficiency gains, will be sufficient to achieve Europe's 2050 vision. 

Access the report here. 


Reaction from IUCN: European Environment Agency rings alarm bells over state of EU’s environment

Today (3/3/15), the European Environment Agency released its State of the Environment Report 2015, delivering a stark message of biodiversity loss, natural capital depletion and environmental pressures. The report emphasizes the recognition that Europe's economic prosperity and well-being are intrinsically linked to its natural environment.

According to the report, Europe’s natural capital is not being sufficiently protected, with loss of soil functions, land degradation and climate change threatening the flows of environmental goods and services that underpin Europe's economic output and well-being. Moreover, Europe continues to lose its biodiversity and habitats, and is not on track to meeting the targets of its 2020 Biodiversity Strategy. Climate change impacts are expected to intensify the threats to biodiversity and accelerate the loss of natural capital.
“The worrying findings of this report do not come as a surprise. Loss of biodiversity, land degradation and climate change are increasingly threatening the very foundations of our society, economy and well-being,” said Luc Bas, Director, IUCN EU Representative Office. “We should no longer consider protecting and restoring our natural capital as a cost and an obstacle to economic development, but as an urgent investment for our future prosperity.”
The findings of the IUCN European Red List of Threatened Species, which has assessed species in Europe since 2006, corroborate the messages of the State of the Environment Report 2015 report. The assessments have shown that biodiversity loss continues at an alarming rate in Europe, with 25% of species threatened with extinction. The main drivers for this are habitat loss, urban expansion, agricultural intensification and climate change.
The report also draws attention to the need for Europe to address systemic environmental challenges by transitioning to a genuine green economy.  It shows that existing policies – especially on environment and climate change - , if properly implemented and recalibrated, can make a substantial contribution to achieving such systemic change. The report identifies four policy approaches that, combined, have the potential to make this shift: advancing resource-efficient technological innovations; adapting to climate change impacts; applying the precautionary principle based on scientific findings; and enhancing natural resources to improve resilience of ecosystems and contribute to economic development.

On the positive side, the report points to the successes of the EU’s strong environmental legislation, while emphasising that challenges remain. The Birds and Habitats Directives in particular have been effective in protecting some endangered species (such as beavers, wolves, cranes and white tailed eagles) and succeeded in creating and expanding Europe’s unique Natura 2000 network of protected areas, which now protects 18% of land and 4% of marine waters. In addition, there have been considerable improvements in Europe’s air and water quality over recent decades.

“We do not need to reinvent the wheel – we know what action is needed, and we have the instruments at our fingertips,” concluded Luc Bas. “In order to preserve and enhance Europe’s ecosystem services and secure our long-term prosperity, we need to fully and effectively implement existing legislation, and beyond that also ensure full recognition of the value of natural capital across all different sectoral policies.”


Kew Gardens funding must be put on secure footing – Science and Technology Select Committee, parliament.uk

The Government’s financial management of Kew Gardens is a recipe for failure, the Science and Technology Committee has warned in a new report.

Andrew Miller MP, Chair of the Committee, said: "The way the Government provides funds to the Royal Botanic Gardens leaves them with little ability to plan for the future and is undermining Kew’s capability to produce world-beating plant science. The Government must work out a stable way of funding the Gardens that provides greater long-term certainty for Kew’s important work.Recent financial problems have led to over a hundred people losing their jobs, 47 of which were scientists, and fears being raised over the ability of Kew to sustain its world class botanical and mycological science. While the management is criticised for failing to produce a strategy (eventually published on 23 February) ahead of making changes and introducing redundancies the Committee has confidence in the management to carry out its plan to ensure the future of both Kew and its scientific mission. Indeed, the report blames the pace of change on the difficult situation created by the restricted and stop/start nature of funding from the Government."  Andrew Miller MP continued: "The Government does not needs to micro-manage Kew’s finances, it must give the Botanic Gardens the same financial freedom as similar leading scientific institutions. The Natural History Museum is thriving with far fewer restrictions on its budget from Government. We think it is time the Government ensured that there was a greater parity in treatment between these institutions".

The report raises concerns that too little of Kew’s funding is unrestricted. It points out that the Royal Botanic Gardens suffers in comparison with Natural History Museum. 96% of the Natural History Museum’s budget is unrestricted so it has the freedom to choose how it is spent. In Kew’s case Defra ends up making decisions better taken by management. The forthcoming Triennial review of Kew provides an opportunity to consider whether there should be more consistency of treatment between Natural History Museum and Kew according to the MPs.

Access the reports: Report: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew   Report: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (PDF)   Inquiry: Funding the Royal Botanic Gardens


New study reveals widespread risk of infectious diseases to wild bees - Royal Holloway, University of London

Researchers have discovered a network of viruses, which were previously associated with managed honeybees, may now pose a widespread risk to bumblebees in the wild, according to a new study published today in the Journal of Animal Ecology.

Bumblebee image via Royal Holloway, University of LondonThe study revealed multiple interconnected diseases that are threatening several species of bumblebee and the managed honeybee, which are essential pollinators of many agricultural crops and wild flowers.

Previously research had only identified one virus, deformed wing virus, which had most likely spilled over from managed honeybees into wild bumblebee populations.

Bumblebee (image via Royal Holloway, University of London)

Professor Mark Brown, from the School of Biological Sciences at Royal Holloway, University of London, said: “Our results confirm a recent review of potential threats to pollinators, indicating that so-called honey bee viruses are widespread in wild bees. It is imperative that we take the next step and identify how these viruses are transmitted among honeybees and wild bees, so that we can manage both to reduce their risk of disease.”

The research identified five viruses – black queen cell virus, deformed wing virus, acute bee paralysis virus, slow bee paralysis virus and sacbrood virus (all named for their effects in honeybees) from wild bumblebees and managed honeybees at 26 sites across Great Britain. Some of these infection levels were highest in honeybees and for others they were higher in bumblebees. This suggests that some viruses are predominantly spread by honeybees, whilst others rely on wild bumblebees.

Dr Dino McMahon, from Queen’s University, Belfast, said: “Our findings are important because they indicate that many viruses can spread easily between pollinator species and, furthermore, that they can reach very high disease levels in wild bumblebees.” 

Professor Robert Paxton, from Queen’s University, Belfast, added: “Our previous research suggested that a key virus of the honeybee – deformed wing virus – spills over to infect bumble bees, probably via contact at flowers. We now find that other viruses may be doing the same. Yet our new findings also highlight just how little we know of bee parasites and the role they play in the decline of pollinators.”


Reaction: Bumblebees at risk from honeybee diseases - Bumblebee Conservation Trust

A new study, published in the Journal of Animal Ecology this week, has discovered a range of viruses in wild bumblebees which were previously thought to be restricted to honeybees. 

Chief Executive Officer of the Bumblebee Conservation Trust, Lucy Rothstein, supported the new research, saying, “We welcome the research carried out by Professor Mark Brown and his team at Royal Holloway, University of London.   Bumblebees are under threat from so many different factors – diseases in particular. Building our understanding about these diseases will play a fundamental role in helping us to find solutions to prevent further declines of these endearing and iconic insects. Bumblebees are vital for our food security and for creating beautiful landscapes for us to enjoy – which is why we have a vested interest in safeguarding their future and supporting research, and why our work creating and restoring bumblebee friendly habitat is more important than ever”.


New research provides farmers with techniques to help turtle dove recovery - RSPB

A new research study, conducted on six farms across East Anglia, has recommended a new agri-environment management option that could help in the recovery of UK turtle dove populations.

The study, carried out by the RSPB and part-funded by Natural England (through its Species Recovery Programme), found that cultivating grown seed with a mix of plant species in the autumn creates a habitat rich in seed that is easily accessible – ideal for turtle doves, which feed on seeds present on, or close to, the ground. The authors also suggest that light cultivation or cutting during spring would better prevent the plots from becoming too overgrown and, therefore, unsuitable for turtle doves.

UK turtle dove populations have fallen 88 per cent since 1995, with one cause for this decline thought to be the lack of seed from arable plants, which historically formed the bulk of turtle doves' diet during the breeding season, resulting in a much shorter breeding season with fewer nesting attempts.

Turtle Dove. image: Andy Hay via RSPBTurtle doves have declined in the UK by 88 per cent since 1995 (Image: Andy Hay via RSPB)

This latest research into the management of bespoke seed mixes to provide food for turtle doves, which was published in the Journal for Nature Conservation today (3 March), is under consideration as a part of a modified version of the nectar flower mix option under the new Countryside Stewardship scheme and could be pivotal in providing food for turtle doves on farmland across the UK.  This new management option is part of a wider ‘turtle dove package’, deployed within the Higher Level Stewardship scheme agreements on farms supporting turtle doves (or with turtle doves nearby), which seeks to provide foraging habitat in proximity to nesting turtle doves. The other options in this package include cultivated margins, fallows that promote seeding plants, and scrub and hedgerow management for nesting. The options a farmer selects will depend on local land characteristics and farming practices.

Tony Morris, Senior Conservation Scientist, RSPB Centre for Conservation Science said: 'This research helps our understanding of how to provide food for turtle doves on farmland where the original sources of seed food have long since vanished but without unduly disrupting modern agriculture. Agri-environment schemes offer the best and perhaps last hope for this iconic species. We're hopeful that, together with farmers and our partners in Operation Turtle Dove, we can reverse the decline of this bird and secure its long-term future in Britain.'


Good news for garden birds - BTO

2014 was a good year for garden birds, though maybe not for garden birdwatchers! Thanks to decent weather and plenty of resources, gardens were not inundated with our common garden birds according to the British Trust for Ornithology  Garden BirdWatch.  By collecting weekly records of garden birds the BTO Garden BirdWatch can tell if anything out of the ordinary is occurring, as birds veer away from their seasonal trends. With the lack of birds in gardens at the beginning of 2014, alarm bells might have been rung, but overall the 2014 results were very ordinary for all of our common garden Long-tailed Tit by Jill Pakenham/BTObirds, and that is no bad thing.  

Long-tailed Tit by Jill Pakenham/BTO

Other BTO surveys show that 2014 was a good year for garden bird species. Preliminary bird ringing results show that Wren numbers and survival rate in 2014 were significantly higher than the five-year average, thanks to the mild weather during winter 2013/2014. It was also a productive breeding season for many of our garden birds, according to nesting and ringing data, including Long-tailed Tit, Song Thrush, Robin and Blackbird, with the latter having one of its best years ever. 

So why did we not see bumper bird numbers in gardens? Clare Simm, from the Garden BirdWatch team, commented, "Continuing mild weather and the ability to obtain food in the wider countryside meant that birds did not need to come into gardens in greater numbers than usual. While the supplementary food that we supply is valuable during adverse weather conditions, it is only used when birds need it. This demonstrates the value of having long-term datasets so that we can tell when and how birds are using gardens."  She added: "So don’t worry - our garden birds are out there!"


Government announces crackdown on illegal fly-tipping - defra

Greater powers to be given to enforcement authorities to stop, search and seize vehicles suspected of waste crime.

Enforcement officers will soon be able to seize vehicles suspected of being involved in fly-tipping thanks to enhanced powers to crack down on waste crime, Resource Management Minister Dan Rogerson announced today.

The new legislation, expected to be introduced to Parliament tomorrow, will make it easier for local authorities, the Environment Agency and Natural Resources Wales to stop, search and seize vehicles suspected of being involved in waste crime. In 2013/14, local authorities dealt with 852,000 incidents of fly-tipping, costing an estimated £45.2 million in clearance costs.

This marks an important milestone in the government’s Waste Crime Action Plan and follows a consultation launched last week on enhancing enforcement powers to tackle waste crime.

Resource Management Minister Dan Rogerson said: " Fly-tipping blights communities and poses a risk to human health, which is why we are supporting the seizure of vehicles suspected of involvement in this pernicious crime. The removal of their means to dispose of waste illegally will act as a greater deterrent to persistent offenders.  We are committed to tackling waste crime, and this new regulation follows tougher sentencing guidelines on fly-tipping that were introduced last year." 


Minister wants bigger role for National Parks - Welsh Government

Natural Resources Minister Carl Sargeant has reiterated his commitment to National Parks and Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty, and wants them to play a more significant role in how Wales manages its environment.

Providing an update on the independent review of designated landscapes in Wales, which he announced in September 2014, the Minister said that National Parks and Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty are integral to Wales’ national identity and are recognised internationally as part of a global family of protected areas.

Carl Sargeant said: “National Parks and Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty are highly valued. They are assets that we should celebrate and protect, but also continue to harness to tackle the environmental and economic challenges that we face. I want them to be international exemplars of sustainability, living landscapes with vibrant, resilient communities, providing extensive outdoor recreation opportunities, tackling social issues and, creating thriving ecosystems which are rich in biodiversity.”

Stage one of the independent review examined the designations themselves, looking at their purposes and the merits of classifying Wales’s designated landscapes under one type of designation. The first stage of the review is now complete and the panel has made six recommendations.

The Minister said that the report of stage one would now provide the basis for reviewing governance and management arrangements of the designations.


Report shows mixed picture for birds of prey in Scotland - Scottish Natural Heritage

A new report published by Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH) shows some of the most complete statistical trends ever for birds of prey in Scotland, and lays the groundwork to gain even more information about raptor populations in the future.

The report shows emerging trends in the numbers and breeding success for 13 species, and finds mixed results: most species are rising, but some are falling.

Certain birds of prey, such as goshawks, buzzards and sparrowhawks, have shown signs of recovery over the past seven years from lows in the past, due to efforts to combat persecution, habitat loss and pesticides.  Not all birds of prey have increased, however, and some declines have been stark. Numbers of kestrels, a once common and widespread breeding bird, have declined. They’re now becoming scarce in many parts of Scotland.

Ron Macdonald, SNH’s director of policy and advice, said: “I’d like to say a huge thank you to the hundreds of volunteer specialists who have helped us present, for the first time, a clear picture of what’s happening to birds of prey across Scotland. Some birds of prey are faring well – but our report also shows that we still have lots of work to do to make sure that all birds of prey flourish in Scotland."

Amy Challis, the Scottish Raptor Monitoring Coordinator at Scottish Raptor Study Group, added: “This report paves the way for us to gain a greater understanding of the health of raptor populations in Scotland. The existing dedicated raptor monitoring volunteers have already provided a wealth of information, and it is now a priority for the Scottish Raptor Monitoring Scheme to build on their work. In light of the findings from this report, we will look at how we can enhance monitoring for, in particular, some of the less rare raptor species, such as kestrels, sparrowhawks and owls."

The report was written by BTO Scotland, RSPB Scotland and Haworth Conservation, funded by Scottish Natural Heritage.

Publication details: SNH Commissioned Report 542: Raptors in Scotland - a methodology for developing trends and indicators

This report provides estimates of trends in numbers and/or breeding success for 13 species of raptors in Scotland. It provides a comprehensive overview of the species for which trends can be produced, using data collected by members of the Scottish Raptor Monitoring Scheme. It also highlights those raptors that we still need to gather more information on so that we can produce trends in the future.

Access the report here.


Scientific Publications

Stritch, Carin,  Naulty, Favel, Zintl, Annetta, Callanan, John., McCullough, Maureen, Deane, David, Marnell, Ferdia & McMahon, Barry. (2015) Squirrelpox virus reservoir expansion on the east coast of Ireland European Journal of Wildlife Research DOI: 10.1007/s10344-015-0909-5


Minderman, Jeroen, Fuentes-Montemayor, Elisa, Pearce-Higgins, James., Pendlebury, Chris. & Park, Kirsty. (2015) Estimates and correlates of bird and bat mortality at small wind turbine sites. Biodiversity and Conservation. DOI: 10.1007/s10531-014-0826-z 


Ebrahimi, Mehregan, Ebrahimie, Esmaeil, Bull, C. Michael. Minimizing the cost of translocation failure with decision-tree models that predict species’ behavioral response in translocation sites. Conservation Biology. DOI: 10.1111/cobi.12479


P.M. Anastácio, F. Banha, C. Capinha, J.M. Bernardo, A.M. Costa, A. Teixeira, S. Bruxelas, Indicators of movement and space use for two co-occurring invasive crayfish species, Ecological Indicators, Volume 53, June 2015, Pages 171-181, ISSN 1470-160X, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2015.01.019.


Beston, J. A., Diffendorfer, J. E. and Loss, S. (2015), Insufficient sampling to identify species affected by turbine collisions. The Journal of Wildlife Management. doi: 10.1002/jwmg.852 


Cooper, C., Larson, L., Dayer, A., Stedman, R. and Decker, D. (2015), Are wildlife recreationists conservationists? Linking hunting, birdwatching, and pro-environmental behavior. The Journal of Wildlife Management. doi: 10.1002/jwmg.855


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